Cattle in the Middle Ages


Just don’t ask…

About Cattle

Domesticated cattle (B. Taurus).
Height of 150 cm (59″), and weigh 410-910 kg (900-2,000 lbs.). Eat 70 kg (155 lbs) of green grass a day Eat 1.4 kg (3 lbs) of silage or .45 kg (1 lb) of hay for every 100 lbs of body weight. Lactating cows require an additional .45 kg (1 lb) of grain or feed for every 3 lbs of milk it produces
[2.7-4.4 gallons per day. Milk weighs 3.9 kg (8.6 lbs) per gallon].

Cattle were raised principally in history for either milk production or for muscle. Beef and leather are byproducts of an animal that has either died or is somehow otherwise surplus.

“Just how big were cattle in the Middle Ages anyway?”

To determine size, we look at two standards. The height to the top of the shoulder (aka the whithers), and/or the weight. This information will be given in the following manner: [female cm (in.); kg (lbs)/male cm (in.); kg (lbs)]

  • Postglacial Aurochs (Bos Primigenius)
    [147 cm (57.9″)/157 cm (61.8″) or 150 cm/180 cm]
  • Neolithic Domestic (c2600 BCE)
    [125 cm (49″)]
  • Late Neolithic, Beaker, and Early Bronze Age (c1900 BCE)
    [122 cm (48″)]
  • Middle Bronze Age (1000 BCE)
    [109 cm (43″)]
  • Iron Age (300 BCE)
    [107 cm (42″)]
  • Romano-British (1st -4th C)
    [112 cm (44″)]
  • Anglo-Saxon & Scandinavian (7th-10th C)
    [115 cm (45.3″) or 104.6-121.4 cm (40.9″-47.8″)]
  • Saxo-Norman and High Medieval (11th-13th C)
    [110 cm (43.3″) or 100-130 cm (39.4-51.2″)]
  • Later Medieval (14th-15th C)
    [109 cm (42.9″)]
  • Tudor (late 15th-16th C)
    [120 cm (47.2″)]
  • 18th C
    [138 cm (54.3″)]
  • Modern English Longhorn
    [130-140 cm (51″-55″)/150 cm (59″)]
  • Modern Dexter
    [91.4-106.7 cm (36″-42″)/96.5-111.76 cm (38″-44″)]
  • Greenlander (extinct)
    [100-110 cm (39.4″-43.3″)]

Therefore, in Britain, at least, cattle in the Middle Ages were smaller than the “average” modern cattle (I *think* 110 cm: 150 cm is about 73% and about 3.6″). On the other hand, the different breeds can give you a different idea of what an average Bovine should look like.

“What Breeds existed in the Middle Ages, and would that have an effect on the statistics?”

Most breeds of cattle can not be dated accurately before the 1700s, so it may be difficult to determine what breeds existed then. Let’s look at some breeds assumed to have existed before the 17th century.

  • Alderney
    Channel Islands – Extinct.
  • “Alpine”/Swiss Brown
    Brown Cow from the Lower Alps in Switzerland and Germany. May stretch back to one of the oldest cattle breeds. Large. Work/Milk.
    [130 cm (51″); 636 kg (1,400 lbs)/145 cm (57”); 909 kg (2000 lbs)]
  • Aurochs (Bos Primigenius, auerochse, ur, boeuf sauvage, oeros, oerrund)
    Extinct, with the last being killed in a Polish forest in 1627. There are modern “bred back” recreations. A second shorthorned species was also described (B. Longifrons or Brachyceros) from which many modern shorthorned breeds are thought to descend, although some people think that this shorthorned breed may be just the female Aurochs.
    [147 cm (57.9″)/157 cm (61.8″) or 150 cm/180 cm] (n.b. The modern humped cattle are alleged to derive from Bos Indicus or B. Namadicus, now extinct)
  • British (“Park”) White (or White Park, Ancient White Park, White Forest, White Horned, Wild White)
    England. Medium (or Small) and Shaggy. Longhorns and polled varieties exist. White fur with black points. The Chillingham Park herd allegedly has not had any interbreeding with other herds since 1220/50. Genetically related to the Galloway and Highland.
    [636 kg (1,400 lbs)/954.4 kg (2,100 lbs)] depending on your sources. Others place the Chillingham herd at
    [386.4 kg (850 lbs)/454.5 kg (1000 lbs)] Other herds are at Cadzow, Chartley, Vaynol. (NOTE: Do not confuse with the British White (aka, the “Polled Park White”), which is an entirely different Breed, although may be decended from the Park White).
  • Canadienne
    France, related to the Normande, Jersey, and Alderney cattle, these milk producers were imported in 1541 to Quebec by Cartier. Milk.
    [122 cm (48″); 550 kg (1,210 lbs)/137 cm (54″); 813 kg (1,790 lbs)]
  • “Celtic” Black
    Britain (from which the Welsh Black, the Galloway, the Highland, and the Angus may have derived).
    [110 cm/120 cm]
  • Corriente
    Spain, imported to the New World by the Spaniards in the 15th and 16th centuries, their descendants remain in Northern Mexico, and are the also ancestral to the Texas Longhorn
    [99 cm (39″); 363 kg (800 lbs)/99 cm (39″); 454.5 kg (1000 lbs)]
  • Galloway
    Scotland (SW Islands) – May be the southern Scots polled cattle referred to since the 11th Century, they may only be 18th Century when the first solid records of them reach back to.
    [122 cm (48″); 575 kg (1,265 lbs)/137 cm (54″); 813 kg (1,790 lbs)]
  • Greenland
    Extinct. Known only from archarological remains. Decended from Norwegian cattle (see “Norsecattle”). Milk
    [Size based on bones: 100-110 cm]
  • Guernsey
    Channel Islands – The Guernsey began c1000 when monks imported cattle from France.
  • Highland
    Scotland (NW Islands) – Medium. Although cattle similar to this have been mentioned in records since the 12th Century, and some scholars place them back to the Iron Age, they may only be 17th Century when the first solid records of them reach back to.
    [107 cm (42″); 363.6-454.5 kg (800-1000 lbs)/122 cm (48″); 454.5-590.9 kg (1000-1300 lbs)]
  • Icelandic
    Decended from Norwegian cattle (see Norsecattle”). Small. Milk (long body/short legs)
    [340.9-500 kg (750-1100 lbs)/454.5-772.7 kg (1000-1700 lbs)]
  • Longhorn
    England (uplands). Large.
    [130-140 cm (51″-55″); 500-600 kg (1000-1320 lbs)/150 cm (59″); 1000 kg (2200 lbs)]
  • Maol
    Ireland. Extinct? “Hornless” Medium size? Work.
    [636kg (1400 lbs)/909 kg (2000 lbs)]
  • Marchigiana
    Italy (Near Rome) Large. Work. Almost pure “Italian Podolian”, or Russian steppes cattle, brought to Italy in the 5th Century. May be ancestral to the Chianina.
    [590.9-691.8 kg (1300-1500 lbs)/909 kg (2000 lbs)]
  • “Viking Cow”/Norsecattle (North Finncattle/Mountain cattle (Fjallko)/Blacksided Trondor) – Finland, Sweden, Norway. (Long body/short legs) Small. Milk. Seems to be related (if not ancestral) to a number of other cattle types in Europe.
    • Norwegeian Blacksided Trondor
      [318-409 kg (700-900 lbs)/636 -772.7 kg (1400-1700 lbs).
    • Swedish Mountain cattle
      [318-409 kg (700-900 lbs)/454.5-613.6 kg (1000-1350 lbs)
  • Romagnola
    Italy (Lower Po) Very Large. Work. Almost pure “Italian Podolian”, or Russian steppes cattle.
    [656-795.5 kg (1450-1750 lbs)/1156 kg (2500 lbs)]
  • Shorthorn
    England (NE lowlands)
    [12 cm (48″); 590.9-636 kg (1300-1400 lbs)/137 cm (54″); 909 kg (2000 lbs)] Originate from the shorthorned:

    • Holderness
    • Teeswater (also partially ancestral to the Ayrshire).

Other English Shorthorned Cattle:

  • Devon
    England. An ancient Red shorthorned breed typical of those found all over southern England. May be descended from B. Longifrons. Work.
    [122 cm (48″); 431.8-590.9 kg (950-1,300 lbs)/137 cm (54 cm); 772.7-1000 kg (1700-2200 lbs)
  • Hereford
    England. An ancient Red shorthorned breed typical of those found all over southern England.
  • Lincoln Red
    Bred from the local Shorthorned Red stock with the “Norsecattle” in the 8th-10th centuries.
  • Norfolk
    A small, hardy, beefy Red cow.
  • Suffolk
    A large dun colored dairy cow (possibly decended from a Galloway related breed, crossed with the
  • Sussex
    England. An ancient Red shorthorned breed typical of those found all over southern England. Reported as a draft ox as far back as 1066. Work.
    [137 cm (54″); 590.9 kg (1,300 lbs)/145 cm (57 cm); 1000 kg (2200 lbs)]
  • Welsh Black (Gwartheg Duon Cymneig)
    Wales. Now Medium sized. Historically, the Northern black was considerably smaller. May only be as old as the 17th Century.
    [122 cm (48″); 454.5 kg (1000 lbs)/137 cm (54″); 863.6 kg (1900 lbs)]

    • Anglesy
      Small. Long, beefy body.
    • Pembroken
      Medium. Milk.
  • Wisent/Bison
    Bulgaria, Romania
    [170-180 cm (66.9″-70.9″); 726-910 kg (1,600-2,000 lbs)]


  • Whitefaced redbodied
  • Red-and-white
  • Danish Red
    Denmark. Descended from the old German Angln, local island cattle, and the Bally.
  • Black and white
  • Black and white
    N. Netherlands. These pre-17th Century proto-Holsteins are known to exist from records.
  • Belted black and white
    Netherlands. The pre-17th Century cattle appear in early paintings.
  • Fromont du Leon
    France. ???
  • Norman Brindle
    France. ???
  • Golden, Long legged cattle from the valleys
  • Red-to-Straw colored Mountain cattle

“Are there any other modern breeds that might have remained unchanged from the Middle Ages?”

The following breeds appear or claim to be pre-17th century “landraces”.

  • Alentejana
    Portugal. Large. Work
    [545.5 kg (1200 lbs)/818.2 kg (1800 lbs)]
  • Brittainy Black Spotted
    France. Small. Once work, now milk.
    [363.6-409.1 kg (800-900 lbs)/545.5-681.8 (1200-1500 lbs)
  • Camargue
    France (Rhone delta) *Small* Sport and Festival.
    [295.5 -341 kg (800-900 lbs)/545.5-681.8 kg (1200-1500 lbs)]
  • Chianina
    Italy (central) Alleged to have existed since Roman times, although this is debateable. EXCEPTIONALLY LARGE Work
    [818.2 kg (1800lbs)/upto 1818.2 kg (4000 lbs)].
  • Dexter
    Ireland (Kerry) *Very Small* May only be 17th Century, or may be from the oldest of breeds
    [91.4 cm-106.7 cm (36″-42″); 341 kg (750 lbs)/96.5 cm-111.76 cm (38″-44″); under 454.5 kg (1,000 lbs)].
  • Flamande
    France. Work/Milk.
    [590.0-681.8 kg (1300-1500 lbs)/upto 1136.4 kg (2500 lbs)]
  • Fresian
    Netherlands – *probably* post-1700, descended from Northern Jutland Black-and-White cattle.
    [636-681.8 kg/1400-1500 lbs)/1045.5 kg (2300 lbs)]
  • Grauvia (Grigia Alpina)
    Austria, Italy (“Grey cattle” or “Grey Mountain Cattle”) Tyrolian. Some claim to be tracable back to the Romans. Medium to Large. Milk.
    [454.5-545.5 kg (1000-1200
  • lbs)/681.8-818.2 kg (1500-1800 lbs)]
  • Grey Steppe
    Romania, Russia?. “Medium Sized”
    [454.5 kg (1000 lbs)/636.4-681.8 kg (1400-1500 lbs)]
  • Hawaiian Wild Cattle
    Hawaii – Abandoned by Cook?
    [318.2 kg (700)/545.5 lg (1200 lbs)]
  • Herens (Eringer)
    Switzerland. Work/Sport/Milk.
    [119 cm (46.9″); 450-500 kg (990-1100 lbs)/122 cm (48″); 600-650 kg (1320-1430 kgs)]
  • Iskur
    Bulgaria. “Medium Sized” Bred from Grey Steppe Cattle, with some northern breed “in the remote past”. Work (some milk).
    [454.5 kg (1000 lbs)/636.4-681.8 kg (1400-1500 lbs)]
  • Kerry
    Ireland “Medium” size. Milk. (long body/short legs) May only be 17th Century
    [354.5-454.5 kg (780-1000 lbs)]
  • Longhorned
    [1430- kg (650-750 lbs)/454.5 kg (upto 1000 lbs)]
  • Mertolenga
    Portugal. Large. Work
    [545.5 kg (1200 lbs)/818.2 kg (1800 lbs)]
  • Modenese
    Italy (Lower Po) Very Large. Work.
    [659.1-759.5 kg (1450-1750 lbs)/1136.4 kg (2500 lbs)]
  • Modicana
    Italy (Sicily) Introduced by Normans after a plague wiped out the Sicilian cattle. Medium size. Work/Milk.
    [409.1-590.9 kg (900-1300 lbs)/454.5-727.3 kg (1000-1600 lbs)]
  • Murciana
    Spain. Work.
    [545.5 kg (1200 lbs)/818 kg (1800 lbs)]
  • Native Cattle
    Greece. A Grey Steppe derivative. Very small.
    [204.5-272.7 kg (450-600 lbs)/???]
  • Piedmontese
    Italy. Work/Milk. Medium-Large.
    [636 kg (1400 lbs)/909 kg (2000 lbs)]
  • Pirenaica
    Spain (Pyrennes). Large. Work/Milk.
    [ ???/upto 909 kg (2000 lbs)]
  • Prete
    Italy (Sicily). Small. Some work.
    [318-364 kg (700-800 lbs)/ 454.5 kg (1000 lbs)]
  • Rodopska
    Bulgaria. *Small*. Mountain cattle from the south. Look like goats. Work (some milk)
    [1760 kg (800 lbs)/1980 kg (900 lbs)]
  • Norwegian Red
    Norway –
    [122 cm (48″); 600 kg (1,320 lbs)/137 cm (54″); 1100 kg (2,420 lbs)] An amaglamation of several old local breeds, including:

    • Dole
    • Hedmark
    • Hordaland
    • Jarlsberg
    • Lyngdal
    • More
    • Ramsdal
    • Red Tronheim
    • South Norwegian
    • Vestland Fjord
    • Vestland Red Polled
    • West Norwegian
  • Polish Red
    Poland – Dark Red. Medium to Large. Resembles the German red. Milk.
    [;400-500 kg (880-1100 lbs)/500-550 kg (1100-1250 lbs)]
  • Tarentaise
    France Alpine. Medium. First work, now milk.
    [590.9 kg (1300 lbs)/upto 1090.9 kg (2400 lbs)]
  • Telemark
    Norway – An amaglamation of several old local breeds. Small. Milk
    [400-500 kg (880-1100 lbs)]
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The Roman Army

Some Notes:

Phase I (c753 BCE – c510 BCE) The Monarchy

The first army of Rome was a simple assemblage of warriors gathered together under the Latin tribal “banner”.  As far as I can find out, they didn’t wear much armor, if any, and may have used a Greek style “leaf shaped” sword in addition to a spear, but that’s about it.

Phase II (c510 BCE – c350BCE) The Phalanx

The army was actually organized, I believe, by Servius Tullius, and was a combined force of Etruscans, Romans, and Latins, and were classified into “Ranks” by the level of their wealth.  There were 5 ranks, from the first to the fifth, and then the Cavalry.  Each “Century” contained 100 men.

Cavalry  (Nobles)[a Maximum of 18 Centuries possible]

First Rank (Heavy Infantry)(Upper Middle Class)[78 Centuries total; field army would have 39]

Armed in Hoplite fashion with a Bronze Helmet, Cuirass, and Greaves; a Long spear, a Greek Style Sword for backup; and an “Argive” style shield (Round and faced either in bronze or leather)

Military Engineers (Upper Middle Class) [2 Centuries; field army would have 1]

When armored, armored as above.

Second Rank (Medium Infantry)(Middle Class)[20 Centuries; field army would have 10]

Armed in hoplite fashion with a Bronze Helmet and Greaves; leather or linen Cuirass; Spear; Sword; and a oval “Scutum”.

Third Rank (Light Infantry)(Upper Lower Class)[20 Centuries; field army would have 10]

Bronze helmet; Linen Cuirass; Spear; Sword; Scutum.

Fourth Rank (Light Infantry)(Lower Class)[20 Centuries; field army would have 10]

Spear; light javelin; Scutum

Fifth Rank (Irregular troops)(Pond Scum)[30 Centuries; field army would have 15]


Phase III (c350 BCE – c100 BCE) The Manipal

After the Roman got the stuffing kicked out of them by the Gauls in the 4th Century BCE and Rome was sacked, the Dictator Camillus reorganized the army into a form that was a bit more maneuverable than the standard phalanx, and laid the groundwork for the Roman army as we think of it, based on a Legion (or “levy”) of about 5000 men.  This was further divided into three battle lines or “Ranks” led by a front rank of lighter troops.  Each rank was made up of Maniples, each consisting of 2 centuries.  In battle these Ranks would be separate waves 80 meters apart.

1st Rank “Velites” (Light Infantry)(Lower Class)[10 maniples of 2 30 man centuries]

Greek Sword or Kopis (aka Spanish Falx); Pilum (Javelin); small shield (round, wood or wicker covered in hide); bronze
helmet (perhaps covered in fur)
After the enemy was closed upon, the Velites would stop, the other ranks would move ahead of them, and the Velites would join up with the Tirari.

2nd Rank “Hastati” (Heavy Infantry)[10 maniples of 2 60 man centuries)

Bronze Helm; bronze breast plate (not large), Scutum, Pilum (light and heavy).  After c200 BCE, they might wear mail* and/or carry the Gladius “Hispanicus” and/or wear the “Celtic/Itallic” helmet.   (*Mail was developed by the Celts and was originally (according to an example found at Kirkburn (c300 BCE)) was 10 gauge BUTTED mail.)

3rd Rank “Princeps” (Heavy Infantry)[10 Maniples of 2 60 man centuries]

Bronze Helm; bronze breast plate (not large), Scutum, Pilum (light and heavy).  After c200 BCE, they might wear mail* and/or carry the Gladius “Hispanicus” and/or wear the “Celtic/Itallic” helmet.

4th Rank “Triari” (Light Infantry)[10 maniples of 2 30 man centuries]

Lightly armored spear men.

5th Rank “Rorari” and “Accensi”

Poorly equipped “reserves” (These disappeared from the army as a concept fairly early on).

There were also “Squadrons” of cavalry of 30 men each trained to perform close order drills.  Also, a detachment of Engineers.

Phase IV (c100 BCE – c25 BCE) Post-Marius’ Reforms

The General Marius restructured the Roman Army based on lessons learned in the Punic Wars.  He first did away with the social basis of the army; disposed of the Velites and the Triari; and standardized the weapons of the troops (Pilums and Gladius).  The army was then restructured into “Cohorts” made up of 6 centuries (essentially a legion marching in formation at you would
be 10 waves of men, each 6 men deep and 100 men wide.

Attached to the Legion were Cavalry units (still mostly noble) and foreign auxiliaries (mostly slingers and bowmen).  Also, each legion maintained a corps of Engineers.

Phase V (c25 BCE – 236) The Imperial Legion.

Augustus changed very little of the army, but his was the first government to actually PAY his troops, and to maintain permanent units of auxiliaries.  He reduced the number of legions from 60-288, as well as lowering the number of men in each “Century” to 80.

The regular legionaries wore, as a rule, the famous “Lorica Segmentata”, which was inexpensive to make and easy to repair in the field.  However, it would not be uncommon to find Mail and Scale armor in the same unit.

Phase VI (236-c290) The Centralized Army

The emperor Gallienus tried to centralize the army, leaving the borders under the protection of the Limtanei “Border Guards” who were to merely slow down an invading force long enough for the Main Body to arrive.

At this point the troops were equipped with Mail, a pilum, a round shield and a Spatha (A form of longsword).  The Imperial Itallic Helm began to be replaced by a Spangenhelm (“helm of plates”) pattern that in many ways resembles the helm found at Sutton Hoo.

Phase VII (c290-c323)  Diocletian’s reforms; The Horse Soldiers

Under Diocletian, the army remained much the same, but training slackened as more attention was paid to the Cavalry.  Also Conscription was begun for what had been for a thousand years an all-volunteer army.

The cavalry was divided into 4 “armies” each sent into a portion of the empire for “quick reaction: attacks.  Each army had lightly armored lancers (Chain shirt, large round shield), lightly armored archers and heavily armored Cataphractos.

There is a debate among historians regarding the Roman Cavalry and the so-called “Celtic” or “Roman saddle” (a frame with 4 “horns” one at each corner).  One school of thought says that the “4 Prong” Roman saddle  is just a pack saddle, and that the Roman cavalry was ineffective since it had no stirrups on its otherwise normal rigid saddles.  The other school of though
says that by experimentation they have proven that the four prong saddle diminishes the need for stirrups for cavalry actions.  Take your pick (me, I lean on the side of the experimenters).

Phase VIII (323-400)

The army was further reduced in 323 when the legion was redefined from 5000 to 1000 men.  They gave up the Pilum.

The Cavalry was organized into “Palatinae” (units of 500 troops, mostly German).  Fewer Romans were to be found in the army.

Phase IX (400- )

After 400, the legion still existed as a concept, but not really as an effective unit.  Moreover, the “Cavalry” had devolved into what were essentially German war-bands, and anyone with a 1000 troops in one place had an “army”.

The Celts

These were essentially “Light Infantry” units locked into the “cowboy mentality” of every man for his own personal honor, and screw the team.  Armor consisted of generally wool tunics and trews, and only the chieftains in chain and bronze helms.. They used large round shields, small bucklers;  “long swords”; slings; bows; and spears.

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Weight measurement in the Early Middle Ages Britain

I was asked recently about units of weight were used in Anglo Saxon and Danish Britain, and in particular in York, so I thought I’d give it a shot.  I have already done a more general page on weights and measurements in the Middle Ages here.  The following are rough.

The problem is that there are so many different variations of what are considered “correct”, going from source to source, it’s hard to determine what should be the actual weights, trying to work downword.  For example, a Norse “Mark” is given as 203 grams, 226.8 grams

OTOH, I noticed that in general, silver pennies from the period of Pepin the Short, through Offa and Coenwulf and even William of Normandy seem to be about 1.3 grams (although there is some variation with at least one from 1066 weighing in at more than 1.4 grams). This would suggest that:

1 Grain (Barleycorn) = = = = = = 0.054 Grams
24 Grains = 1 Pennyweight = = = = = 1.3 Grams
384 Grains = 16 Pennyweight = 1 Ore = 1 Ounce = = = 20.8 Grams
2304 Grains = 128 Pennyweight 8 Ora 8 Ounces = 1 Mark = = 166.4 Grams
5760 Grains = 240 Pennyweight = 15 Ora = 12 Ounce = 1.5 Marks = 1 Pound = 312 Grams



Comparing this to measures found at  archaeological sites (which may not be perfectly accurate because of chemical alterations during burial, not to mention coming from unsubstantiated websites)


  • 284 Grams = 218.46 Pennyweight or 13.6 Ora.

  • 226 Grams = 173.85 Pennyweight, 1 Mark or 10.865 Ora.

  • 70.5 Grams = 54.23 Pennyweight, or  3.39 Ora.


  • 819 Grams =  630 Pennyweight, or 39.38 Ora.

  • 57.25 Grams =  44.04 Pennyweight, or 2.75  Ora.

  • 32.65 Grams = 25.12 Pennyweight, or  1.57 Ora.

  • 32.4 Grams =  24.92 Pennyweight, or  1.56 Ora.

  • 24.38 Grams = 18.75 Pennyweight, or  1.17 Ora.

Riazan, near Moscow (11th century)

  • 144.3 Grams = 111 Pennyweight, or 6.94  Ora.

  • 56.167 Grams = 43.21 Pennyweight, or  2.7 Ora.

  • 39.808 Grams = 30.62 Pennyweight, or  1.91 Ora.

  • 39.429 Grams = 30.33 Pennyweight, or  1.9 Ora.

  • 31.177 Grams = 23.98 Pennyweight, or  1.5 Ora.

Which looks like the weights were likely in some version of an Ora, say at increments of 1, 1.5, 2, 3, etc.

Is this perfectly right?  I have no idea.

Other things to muddy the issue:

A Danish Pund, established in 1683 and used until 1607 was 499.75 grams

In Norway, before 1683, the Pund was 466.65 grams, the Merke was 218.7 grams, the ort was .9735 grams.

In Sweden there were a variety of local measures before the country standardized things in 1665, which lasted more or less until 1855, and the Metric system being adopted in 1889.  The ort was 4.2508 gram The Mark was 212.5 grams, although in the Viking era it may have been as little as 203 grams.  The Skalpund was 423 grams

Anglo-Saxon measurement (More or less, for comparison)

1 Grain (Barleycorn) = = = = = = .0648 Grams
24 Grains = 1 Pennyweight = = = = = 1.552 Grams
288 = 12 Pennyweight = 1 Shilling = = = = 18.66 Grams
384 = 16 Pennyweight = = 1 Ore = = = 24.88 Grams
480 Grains = 20 Pennyweight = = = 1 Ounce = = 31.104 Grams
5760 Grains = 240 Pennyweight = 20 Shillings = 15 Ora = 12 Ounce = 1 Pound = 373.25 Grams


  • Cribb, Joe, Barrie Cook, and Ian Carradice. The Coin Atlas the World of Coinage from Its Origins to the Present Day. New York: Facts on File, 1990.
  • Davies, Glyn, and Bank Julian Hodge. A History of Money: From Ancient Times to the Present Day. 3rd, with revisions. ed. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2002.
  • Hobson, Burton, and Robert Obojski. Illustrated Encyclopedia of World Coins. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1970.
  • Jones, Stacy V. Weights and Measures: An Informal Guide. Washington, D.C.: Public Affairs Press, 1963.
  • Junge, Ewald. World Coin Encyclopedia. 1st U.S. ed. New York: William Morrow and Company, 1984.
  • Oxford University Press. The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd / prepared by J.A. Simpson and E.S.C. Weiner. ed., ed. J. A. Simpson and E. S. C. Weiner. Oxford New York: Clarendon Press; Oxford University Press, 1989.
  • Woolhouse, Wesley Stoker Barker. Historical, Measures, Weights, Calendars & Moneys of All Nations and an Analysis of the Christian, Hebrew and Muhammadan Calendars (with Tables up to 2000 A.D.). Chicago: Ares Publishers, 1979.
  • Zupko, Ronald Edward. A Dictionary of English Weights and Measures: From Anglo-Saxon Times to the Nineteenth Century. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1968.
  • Zupko, Ronald Edward. French Weights and Measures before the Revolution a Dictionary of Provincial and Local Units. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1978.
  • Zupko, Ronald Edward. Italian Weights and Measures from the Middle Ages to the Nineteenth Century Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society, 145. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1981.
  • Zupko, Ronald Edward. A Dictionary of Weights and Measures for the British Isles the Middle Ages to the Twentieth Century Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society, 168. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1985.
  • Zupko, Ronald Edward. Revolution in Measurement Western European Weights and Measures since the Age of Science Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society, 186. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1990.
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Coin Hoards

The practical definition of a hoard or trove is two or more coins brought together for a specific purpose. There are essentially four sorts of “Hoards” or “Troves”:

Hidden during an emergency, usually with the intent of later retrieval. These are most often of random denominations, and may include other things, like gems, jewelry, etc.

Hidden because someone is saving money or things. These often tend to be a limited number of denominations. Often dominated by coins of high quality and value. They are often the least worn and heaviest of their denomination. Strangely, they are often in odd containers that may be difficult to extract the money from. Modern examples include saving silver dollars, saving to buy something, setting aside your pennies in a jar, a piggy bank, etc. Includes what are known as “Mercantile Hoards” and “Boullion Hoards”.

Purse/Accidental Losses:
This is money that is being carried by a person. It is usually of a small size, or in a compact mass.

Abandoned Hoard:
This is a collection of coins that the hoarder has no intention of ever going back to collect. Grave goods, shipwrecks and wishing wells fall into this category.


  • Beauworth, Hampshire (England)8000-9000 silver pennys in a lead chest (William I & II).
  • Birka (Sweden)Silver Coins, ingots, and jewelry (c975).
  • Carrawburgh (England) Well of Coventina15-20,000 coins (Lost between c150 BCE-5th C). Probably 16,000 minted between 100-300
    (including 300 Hadrian “Britannia” coins).
  • Cuerdale, Lancashire (England)7000+ Silver coins (ingots and jewelry)(c.903)
  • Dere Street, Durham Co. (England)8 denarii, 2 sestercii (c.165)
  • Dorchester (England)22,000 debased silver coins (c260)(Found in a bowl, a jug, and a metal box, it is likely
    that this is the tax revenue of a single town).
  • England200,000 Edw I & II silver pennys.
  • Gloucester (England)”Several Thousand” silver, bronze, and a few gold coins all 3d C found in a
    12″x16″ Roman Urn.
  • Newark Hoard (England)97 gold coins (1646)
  • Samual Pepys (England)£4300 in two sites (1667)(All recovered but for £20)
  • Sutton Hoo (England)37 Gold coins, 3 blanks, 2 ingots (c625)
  • Sussex (England)502 Copper, Silver, and Gold coins (1650-1660) +”hundreds more” found later.
  • Thorngrafton Hoard (England)3 Aurei, 60 denari (Hadrian) special*
  • Wroxeter (England)132 Coins (???) (Found on a corpse hiding from a raid)
  • Wiltshire (England)61 Silver Coins. Stuart Coins buried c1680. 1 Cha I 1/2 Crown, 44 Cha II 1/2 Crowns, 16 Cha II Crowns. All in a large mug.
  • Killane, Wexford (Eire)55 Gold Coins (1798)
  • Shannon (Ireland)10 lbs of Gold (c900)
  • Hoard 3 (Italy)41 Silver Coins (c40 BCE)
  • Hoard 4 (Italy)37 Silver Coins (c40 BCE)
  • Hoard 5 (Italy) 22 Silver Coins (c40 BCE)
  • Hoard 7 (Italy) 410 Silver Coins (c40 BCE)
  • Damanhur (Egypt)8000 Tetradrachms (minted 336-323 BCE) buried c.318 BCE.
  • Merovingian (France)? Gold (c625)
  • Modena (Italy)80,000 gold coins (c.50 BCE)
  • Gornoslav Hoard (Bulgaria)786 gold coins (1182) (This appears to be the payroll for for a monastery, buried in a
  • Gotland & Oland (Sweden) & Bornholm (Denmark)800 Gold Solidi (395-550) [Late Roman & Byzantine, possibly gotten from Ostrogoths]
  • Gotland (Sweden)TOTAL: 99,000 Silver coins (40,000 Arab, 38,000 German, 21,000 Anglo-Saxon).
  • Vasa Shipwreck (Sweden)4000 Coins. Gold, Silver, Copper (actually a collection of hoards, including 2 of 900 each in barrels)(1628)


Hobson, Burton and Robert Obojski. Illustrated Encyclopedia of World Coins. 1970
Casey, P.J. Understanding Ancient Coins. 1986.
Burnett, Andrew. Interpreting the Past: Coins. 1991.

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More Oklahoma History than I learned in High School


(Mostly extracted from the History of Tulsa, by Clarence Douglas (1921), and he cites the Oklahoma Red Book.)

The first known inhabitants of Oklahoma were the Osage, Quapaw, Caddo, Wichita, Waco, Tawakony, Kiowa, Comanche, the Apache of the Plains and several other tribes of Indians.

1528-1536 – Four survivors of Cabeca de Vaca’s expedition, captured by the Indians, first saw the buffalo in the Red River Valley and are supposed to have been taken through a portion of Oklahoma.

1541 – Francisco Vasquez de Coronado made an expedition from Mexico northward and is believed to have penetrated as far north as Northeastern Kansas, crossing Western Oklahoma. They named the Great Plains the “Llano Estacado.”

1541-2 – Moscosco and a few survivors of DeSoto’s exploring party are believed to have crossed Eastern Oklahoma.

1549 – Bonilla, Spanish explorer, explored far out on the Great Plains and is believed to have crossed one or more of the counties of Western Oklahoma.

1601 – Onate, Spanish governor of New Mexico, is believed to have passed through the western part of the state in search of Quivira, the land of supposedly fabulous wealth of gold.

1611 – A Spanish expedition · was sent to the Wichita Mountains, and until

1629 Spanish missionaries labored among the tribes in that section.

1650 – Don Diego del Castillo with a force of Spanish spent several months in the Wichita Mountains seeking gold. He found many pearls which he sent to the governor of New Mexico at Santa Fe.

1655 – The Crown of Great Britain made a grant for the colony of Carolina, embracing all the land from the Atlantic to the Pacific between 30 degrees and 36 degrees, 30 minutes north latitude.

1673-Marquette, a French Jesuit missionary, and Louis Joliet, a Quebec trader, floated down the Mississippi River to the mouth of the Arkansas.

1678-1682 – Robert de La Salle explored the Mississippi to its mouth and claimed all land drained by that river and its tributaries for the King of France in whose honor he named the great region Louisiana.

1714 – Saint Denis from New Orleans descended the Red River along the southern boundary of Oklahoma. .

1717 – The Spanish under Padilla marched from the Spanish settlements on the Rio Grande across the Great Plains to punish the Comanche for making warfare on them. They fought a hard battle on the western border of Oklahoma and captured 700 prisoners.

1719 – Bernard de la Harpe, under direction of Governor Bienville at New Orleans, set out from Natchitoches on the Red River to explore the valley of that stream. He passed over Southern and. Southeastern Oklahoma.

1723 – New Orleans was proclaimed as the seat of government for the Territory of Louisiana.

1723 – Etienne Venyard du Bourgmont crossed Oklahoma, visiting the Pawnee, Kaw, Osage, Missouri, and then the Comanche on the Arkansas River in what is now Central Kansas. He ·loaded the Indians with presents in an effort to win their attachment to the French, thus beginning the rivalry with the Spanish for the Great Plains region.

1739-40 – Two brothers named Mallet and four ·companions ascended the Missuri River to the Platte, following that river to the Rocky Mountains. Skirting the mountains, the party went to Santa Fe, N. M., where they spent the winter, separating in the spring, three members of the party returned overland to the Missouri, while the other three passed down the Arkansas through Oklahoma.

1760 – Brevel, a French Creole trader from New Orleans, visited the Wichita Mountains in company with the Caddo Indians. He reported the Spaniards to be engaged in mining operations in the mountains at that time. Spanish priests were also present among the Indians.

1763 – The Territory of Louisiana was secretly ceded to the Spanish by the French to prevent its falling into the hands of the British.

1801 – Louisiana was ceded back to the French by the Spanish.

1803 – Louisiana was purchased by President Thomas Jefferson for the United States for $15,000,000 cash and the assumption of obligations amounting to $3,750,000.

1806 – Captain Richard Sparks, Second United States Infantry, sought to explore the Red River but was met on the southern boundary of Oklahoma by a force of Spanish and compelled to return.

1806 – Lieutenant Wilkinson of Zebulon Pike’s exploring party descended the Arkansas from a point near Great Bend, Kan., to the settlements on the lower course of the river.

1809 – A band of Cherokee Indians made agreement with President Jefferson to move beyond the Mississippi River to what is now the State of Arkansas. These lands were ceded to them by treaty in 1817.

1811 – The Salt Plains of the Cimarron and Salt Fork were explored by George C. Sibley, United States Indian Agent at Fort Osage on the Missouri.

1817 – Fort Smith was established as a military post, at the mouth of the Poteau on the Arkansas River.

1817 – Battle of Claremore Mound between Osages and Cherokees.

1819 – Major William Bradford, stationed at Fort Smith, marched through Eastern Oklahoma to expel “intruders,” most of whom were declared to be renegades and fugitives from the eastern states. He was accompanied by Thomas Nuttall, the noted ‘botanist, who visited the valley of the Grand, Verdigris, Cimarron and the Deep Fork of the Canadian during the season.

1819 – Treaty was made with Spain whereby the Red River was to be the northern boundary of the Spanish possessions to the 100th meridian, following that meridian to the Arkansas River and the channel of that stream westward to the Continental Divide.

1819-20 – Major Stephen Long’s party of engineers entered Western Oklahoma just north of the Canadian River, and following that river, believing it to be the Red River, landed at Fort Smith. His course was generally along the divide between the two Canadians.

1820 – Choctaw treaty made with Generals Jackson and Thomas Hinds, subsequently ratified by the treaty at Washington in 1825 and the Dancing Rabbit Creek treaty in 1830.

1821 – Capt. Nathan Prior, Hugh Glenn and Jacob Fowler left Fort Smith with a party of traders and trappers on ail expedition to the Rocky Mountains. They crossed through Northern Oklahoma.

1822 – The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions established a mission school on the Grand River for the Osage Indians, a few miles north of the spot upon which Cantonment Gibson was built.

1824 – Forts Gibson and Towson were established

1825 – First treaty made with the Creeks for their removal from Georgia. This treaty was confirmed by the treaties of 1826 and 1832.

1825 – The Santa Fe Trail, crossing what is now Texas and Cimarron counties, was laid out.

1826 – Eastern boundary of Oklahoma from Red River to Arkansas was surveyed.

1828 – Treaty made with the Cherokees of Georgia by which they were to move on a reservation of 7,000,000 acres, west of Arkansas, with an outlet to the region of the Great Plains.

Between 1828 and 1836 the Lochapoka, Muscogee establish Tulasi (Tulsey Town), near what is now 18th and Cheyenne.

1830 – By act of Congress provision was made for the establishing of the Indian Territory.

1832 – The Seminole treaty was signed, but was unheeded by the tribe. In 1836 they were provoked into hostilities and in 1842 were forcibly removed to the Indian Territory.

1832 – Chickasaw treaty was .signed at Pontotoc Creek, Miss., and the tribe came to Indian Territory.

1832 – A company of mounted rangers under command of, Capt. Nathan Boone from the Osage Agency, near Fort Gibson, marched ·westward to a point near Guthrie and then turning south passed between the sites of Oklahoma City and El Reno, and thence southeastward across Cleveland and Pottawatomie counties, and to Fort Gibson.

1832 – Judge Henry L Ellsworth’s expedition into the American West brings author Washington Irving to Oklahoma.

1833 – War broke out between the Osage and Kiowa Indians and Gen. Henry Leavenworth with a body of troops marched westward to a point between Anadarko and the Wichita Mountains and thence southwestward through the Wichitas, in an effort to pacify the warring tribes. This led to a general peace council at Fort Gibson.

1835 – Treaty of New Echota. Second treaty made with Cherokees in Mississippi in February with John Ross as principal chief of the tribe. The ‘Cherokees became dissatisfied with the amount fixed by the United States Senate for their lands, which Ross sought to refer to a general council of his people for deliberation. · A meeting held in October resulted in the tribe refusing to consider the offer. At a second council called by the Government in December but few of the Cherokees were present. A treaty was perfected with the few present and the Senate ratified this, making the official proclamation May 23, 1836.

1835-36 – Fort Holmes was established by the American Fur Company of St. Louis as a trading post with the southwestern tribes. Fort Holmes was abandoned three years later when a trading post was established in the southern part of what is now Cleveland County. Choteau, a trading post on the west bank of Cache Creek, near the present site of Lawton, was also established.

1836 – The main body of the Creek tribe moved to their new reservation.

1837 – The Chickasaws and Choctaws made a treaty near Fort Towson by which the Chickasaws purchased a joint interest in the granted Choctaw reservation.

1837 – The treaty with the Kiowa, Apache, Apache of the Plains, and Tawakony was signed.

1837 – The Cherokee Outlet was surveyed by the Rev. Isaac McCoy.

1838 – A force of 2,000 troops under command of Gen. Winfield Scott forcibly moved the Cherokees west.

1839 – As a culmination of the feeling between the “Treaty” .and “AntiTreaty” factions of the Cherokees, Major Ridge and Elias Boudinot were killed. Boudinot’s brother, Stand Watie was also attacked but survived. Civil war in the tribe threatened for a time.

1839 – Bill was introduced in Congress providing for the organization of the Indian Territory. It was submitted to the several tribes but was not largely approved and no action was taken.

1834-39-40 – Santa Fe traders made the trip across Oklahoma from Fort Smith and Van Buren in each of these years under military escort.

1842 – Fort Washita was established twenty-two miles above the mouth of the Washita River.

1843 – Capt. Nathan Boone, son of Daniel Boone, made a second exploring expedition through the valleys of the Arkansas and Cimarron and their tributaries.

1845 – Texas was annexed to the United States.

1846 – The Government succeeded in getting the factions of the Cherokee tribe to sign a treaty between themselves.

1845-48 – Between these years 7,000 Choctaws moved from Alabama and Mississippi to the tribal reservation.

1846 – War broke out with the Kiowas and Comanches.

1846 – Lewis Perryman built a trading post near what is now 33rd and South Rockford.

1849 – A part of California gold seekers crossed the state from Fort Smith and Van Buren, following the valley of the Canadian.

1850 – Texas relinquished all claims to the land north of thirty-six degrees and thirty minutes. The establishment of the bounds of New Mexico left the so-called “No-Man’s-Land” unattached to any state, territory or Indian reservation.

1850 – Lieut. J. H. Simpson laid out an overland trail across Oklahoma from east to west. The route followed the Canadian to a point in what is now the southern part of Cleveland County, on the north side of the river. There a crossing was made to the south side and the trail continued to a point in the northern part of Caddo County where it crossed over into the valley of the Washita, re-entering the Canadian in Roger Mills County.

1851 – Fort Arbuckle was established near the Wichita Mountains.

1852 – Capt. R. B. Marcy led a surveying and exploring expedition up the Red River. Some mistakes made in his map are declared to have resulted in the dispute over the Greer County boundary.

1853 – First attempt was made by the Cherokee and Creek to perfect a treaty with the plains tribes.

1853 – A peace council was held by the Government with the Kiowas, Comanches and Apaches of the Plains, and a part of the terms was that the Government should make a yearly allowance of $18,000 for the ensuing ten years.

1854 – Capt. Patrick Calhoun, son of John C. Calhoun, led an expedition against the hostile Indians in the Wichita Mountains and in the valley of the Red River from Western Texas. Great hardships were experienced in the winter months by the command, Captain Calhoun dying four years later as a result of his broken health, caused by the trying winter of the campaign in Southeastern Oklahoma.

1855 – The Chickasaws and Choctaws signed an agreement by which the Chickasaws obtained their political separation on payment of $150,000.

1856 – A part of the Creek reservation was set aside by a treaty with the Government for the Seminoles.

1857 – Fort Gibson was abandoned as an army post. It was afterwards garrisoned by Confederate and then Federal troops, being finally abandoned in 1890.

1857 – The Choctaws and Chickasaws adopted new tribal constitutions.

1858 – The north boundary line of Oklahoma was surveyed by Lieut. Joseph E. Johnston, afterward famous as a Confederate general. ·

1858 – Camp Radziminski was established in the southern portion of Kiowa County. ·

1859 – Fort Cobb was established in the’ Washita Valley.

1861 – The Choctaw Council on February 7th adopted resolutions declaring their affiliation and sympathy with the southern states in the Civil war.

1861 – Fort Smith was captured by the Confederate forces April 23d; Fort Arbuckle, Fort Cobb and Fort Washita were abandoned by the Union forces and occupied by the Confederates.

1861 – The Chickasaw Legislature, by resolution, allied themselves with the Confederate states.

1861 – The Indian Territory was declared to be under the military control of the Confederacy, May 13th. ·

1861 – Albert Pike, special commissioner of the Confederate States, signed a treaty at Eufaula with the members of the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek and Seminole Nations July 10th-12th and August 1st.

1861 – The Cherokees in council signed a treaty of alliance and friendship with the Confederate states October 7th.

1861 – Alliance and friendship treaties were signed by Commissioner Pike with representatives from parts of the Comanche, Wichita, Waco, Caddo, Anadarko, Tawakony, Tonkawa, Keechi and Delawares August 12th at Anadarko, and with the Osage; Quapaws, Senecas and Shawnees October 2d-4th. The major portion of the Osages and the Shawnees remained loyal to the national government. Many Indians of the respective tribes, ·also, remained loyal to the Union and fought in the Union armies.

1861 – The Trail of Blood on Ice campaign as Opothleyahola tried to move his people out of the Confederate controlled areas, November-December.  Three major battles: Round Mountain. Chusto-Talasah (aka “Caving Banks”), and Chustenahlah.

1862 – Battle of Old Fort Wayne, October 22.

1863 – Battle of Cabin Creek, July 1-2.

1863 – Battle of Honey Springs, July 17.

1864 – Battle of Middle Boggy Depot, February 13.

1865 – Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith, commanding the Trans-Mississippi department of the Confederate Army surrendered at Fort Smith May 26th. The Indians under Gen. Douglas H. Cooper refused to enter into the compact with the Confederates, declaring for a separate agreement of surrender with the Union forces. This surrender was effected June 23d at Doaksville, Choctaw Nation.

1865 – The Chisholm trail was laid out from the present site of Wichita, Kan., to the Wichita-Caddo Agency, where Anadarko is now located.

1866 – The new Seminole treaty was signed March 12th, it being the first with the Indians who had allied themselves with the Confederacy. The joint Chickasaw-Choctaw treaty was signed April 28th; the Creek treaty, June 14th; and the Cherokee, July 19th.

1867 – Removal of the Kansas tribes to Northeastern Indian Territory.

1867 – Medicine Lodge treaty was signed with Kiowas, Comanches, Apaches, Cheyennes and Arapahoes.

1868 – Removal of the Shawnees from Eastern Kansas to the Cherokee country.

1868 – Congress passed an act that there should be no more treaties with the Indians.

1868 – Gen. George A. Custer waged the Washita Valley campaign.  Battle of the Washita River, November 27 left 171 dead.

1870 – The Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railroad began laying its tracks into the Indian Territory.

1872 – The Atlantic & Pacific (now the Frisco), Railway was built, effecting a junction with the Missouri, Kansas & Texas at Vinita.

1869-72 – Quakers were appointed as Indian agents for the Wichita-Caddo and affiliated tribes.

1871-72 – Indian raids in the southwest were renewed under Satanta. Satanta, Satank and Big Tree were arrested for their raids in Texas, found guilty at Jacksboro, Tex., on charge of murder and sentenced to be hanged, but sentence was commuted to life imprisonment.

1872 – The Five Civilized Tribes met with the plains tribes at Fort Cobb and endeavored to get them to leave the warpath.

1874 – The last outbreak on the part of the Kiowa, Comanche, Cheyenne and Arapaho occurred. Peace was restored the following year.

1875 – First cattle ranches were established in Western Indian Territory. ·

1877 – The Northern Cheyennes were brought to Fort Reno from Dakota, Wyoming and Montana.

1878 – A band of the Northern Cheyennes under the leadership of Dull Knife went on a raid and were permitted to return to the north. The remainder of the Cheyennes were escorted to the Pine Ridge Agency in 1883.

1879 – The Carpenter colony of settlers from Kansas City, Mo., made the first attempt to enter the unassigned lands, known as Oklahoma. They were ejected by troops under command of Gen. Wesley Merritt. Another was organized at Topeka, Kan., under J. R. Boyd, and one was organized in Texas to operate from Caddo, Indian Territory. The Carpenter colony entered near what is now Coffeyville, Kan., May 7th.

1879 – Tulsey Town’s 1st post office established by Lewis Perryman in a house at 31st and Lewis.

1880 – The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe built its line to Caldwell, Kan., on the northern border of Indian Territory.

1880 – Capt. David L. Payne and his colony of settlers crossed into Oklahoma, locating in Oklahoma County, where they were apprehended by the troops, taken to Fort Reno, later .escorted to the Kansas line by soldiers, and released June 7th. Within a month Captain Payne returned to Oklahoma and was arrested a second time and taken to Fort Reno and from there to Fort Smith where he was released without bond.

1881 – Stockmen of the Cherokee Strip met at Caldwell, Kan. for the discussion of common interests. This was the beginning of the movement which culminated in the organization of the Cherokee Strip Live Stock Association two years later.

1881 – Captain Payne brought suit in the United States court at Topeka, Kan., for damages on account of his forcible removal from the territory. He was frustrated by repeated postponements and in the fall he went to Texas where he organized his second colony. They came to Oklahoma and encamped on Cache Creek but were expelled by the troops.

1882 – Cattlemen began fencing ranches in the Cherokee Strip.

1882 – Payne went to Washington, D. C., to consult with the Secretary of the Interior in regard to the status of the Oklahoma land, but received no satisfaction. Returning, he organized a third colony and was arrested again and taken to Fort Reno, and thence to Fort Smith, but the case was continued on the motion of the district attorney, and Payne began organizing his followers for a fourth attempt to effect a settlement in Oklahoma.

1882 – The Frisco line reaches Tulsa with Henry C. Hall in charge of the grading.  He and his brother, J. M. Hall set up one of the first stores in what is now downtown Tulsa.  J. M Hall laid out the first streets.

1883 – Payne made another attempt to settle Oklahoma with a colony of several hundred persons. They made their way into the valley of the North Canadian where he was again arrested and taken to Fort Reno while his followers were escorted by the troops to the Kansas border. Payne sought to obtain an injunction against the military authorities in the district court at Topeka in July. A band of 250 “boomers” from Arkansas City left in August for Oklahoma, but Payne was not with them. He and three associates were arrested at Wichita and formally indicted by a federal “grand jury on a charge of conspiracy to violate the laws of the United States, and in the meanwhile the injunction proceedings were postponed from time to time.

1883 – The Esparhechar, or Green Peach, War between Esparhechar and Chief Checota over the leadership of the Muscogee.

1884 – Oklahoma “boomers” began to settle the country singly, instead of coming in a body, but as fast as the settlers were removed others followed. Payne and seven other leaders were arrested August 9th at Rock Falls, four miles south of Hunnewell, Kan., in the Cherokee Strip on a charge of conspiracy by intruding on Indian lands. Judge C. C. Foster, of the United States District Court, held that the title to the land in Oklahoma was vested in the United States, and therefore settlement by citizens was not a criminal offense. This was Payne’s first and only real victory in the courts.

1884 – Captain Payne died suddenly at Wellington, Kan., November 27th, and it was but a few days later when Representative Sidney Clarke, James B. Weaver of Iowa, and W. M. Springer of Illinois, aligned themselves behind a bill providing for the opening and settlement of Oklahoma. Representative Clarke introduced the bill.

1884 – First Presbyterian Church opens in Tulsa.

1885 – W. L. Couch, one of Payne’s lieutenants, moved from the Kansas line at the head of a large colony of “boomers,” little more than a month after the death of Payne. The party reached the Valley of Stillwater Creek, where they encamped, laid out a town, and staked claims, but were driven out at the point of guns to the Kansas border.

1885 – Couch and twelve leaders were arrested on a charge of treason in January and were placed in jail in Wichita. The Oklahoma lands were declared Indian lands by President Cleveland March 13th. The ·cattlemen were notified by the military authorities to move, but no record is had that they heeded the notice. Couch and his companions were released some weeks later when General .Hatch, who had ousted them from Stillwater Creek failed to appear at the trial.

1885 – President Cleveland issued a proclamation ordering the removal of the cattle ranch fences from the ranges of Oklahoma, August 7th. The last effort at colonization was under the leadership of Couch during the fall, but the colonists were removed by Lieut. Col. E. V. Summer, Fifth Cavalry, November 10th.

1885 – The beginning of construction work on the new railroad from Arkansas City south to Fort Worth, Tex., was begun. This gave the “boomers” inspiration that the lands would soon be opened to settlement.

1886 – The Santa Fe was completed north and south across the country

1887 – Immigration of settlers into “No-Man’s Land” began.

1889 – The Oklahoma bill was passed by the House of Representatives early in February, but Senator Preston B. Plumb, of Kansas, made an impassioned speech when it was reported from the senate committee on territories and the measure failed to pass, but the famous “rider” on the Indian appropriation bill, opening Oklahoma to settlement, was passed by Congress and it became a law March 3, 1889. March 23d, President Harrison issued the proclamation naming April 22d as the day of opening.

1890 – The organic act was passed and became a law May 2d, giving the land an organized form of territorial government.

1890 – The population of the Indian Territory as reported by the federal census was 179,321, of which number 50,616 were Indians. The population of Oklahoma was given at 61,834.

1890 – The reported corning of an Indian Messiah caused much unrest among the whites as Indians in Western Oklahoma began holding a series of “ghost dances.”

1890 – George W. Steele of Indiana was appointed territorial governor May 22d.

1890 – First election for choosing members to Legislature was held August 5th.

1891 – A. J. Seay was appointed territorial governor October 18th.

1891 – The surplus lands of the Sac and Fox, the Iowa, and the Shawnee-Pottawatomie reservations were opened to settlement September 22d. .

1893 – Governor A. J. Seay was removed from office by President Cleveland in May and W. C. Renfrow was appointed to fill the vacancy.

1893 – The Cherokee Outlet and the surplus lands of the Pawnee and Tonkawa reservations were opened to settlement September 16th.

1893 – President Cleveland appointed Ex-Senator Henry L. Dawes of Massachusetts, Meredith H. Kidd of Indiana, and Archibald S. McKennon of Arkansas, members of the Dawes commission November 1st.

1893 – Dennis T. Flynn, delegate from Oklahoma Territory in Congress, introduced a bill in the fifty-third Congress providing for the admission of Oklahoma and Indian territories as a joint state.

1895 – In May the Kickapoo surplus lands were opened to settlement.

1896 – Greer County was made a part of Oklahoma by act of Congress, approved May 4th.

1896 – A statehood-convention was held in Oklahoma City, January 8th. Two separate calls had been issued for the meeting, one by the supporters of the joint statehood movement and the other for the separate statehood idea. The meeting was disrupted soon after it convened. Two chairmen were elected by the rival factions and a wrangle resulted which was stopped only by the lights being turned out.

1897 – Cassius. M. Barnes was appointed in April by President McKinley to succeed Governor Renfrow, whose term of office had expired.

1898 – Spanish-American war broke out and many young men from Oklahoma and the Indian territories answered the calls for troops.

1898 – Tulsa was formally incorporated and elected its first Mayor, Edward Calkins.

1899 – The Curtis bill was passed in February.

1900 –  Smallpox epidemic in Tulsa.

1901 – The Crazy Snake “uprising” was advertised in a sensational manner by newspapers, when some of the Creeks refused to accept allotments. A faction elected Chitto Harjo chief and he called a special meeting of the National Council. He was later arrested with several of his followers, when much excitement had been stirred up, and was confined in jail for a time.

1901 – Gas and oil were discovered in the vicinity of Tulsa, Red Fork, Sapulpa and other towns of the Creek Nation early in the spring.

1901 – William M. Jenkins was appointed governor April 15th to succeed Governor Barnes.

1901 – The reservations of the Kiowa, Comanche, Wichita, Caddo, Apache of the Plains and the affiliated tribes were opened to settlement by registration July 9th. The drawing began August 6th.

1901 – Governor Jenkins was .removed from office by President Theodore Roosevelt and Thompson B. Ferguson was named as his successor November 30th.

1902 – The senate committee on territories visited Oklahoma in the fall. A bill providing for single statehood of the two territories was reported· out by the senate committee when Congress met in December, but the bill became involved with the New Mexico-Arizona statehood question and action was deferred.

1905 – The Sequoyah Constitutional Convention met in Muskogee in July. William H. Murray was chosen president. It proposed the formation of a separate state of the Indian Territory to be named Sequoyah.

1905 – First two public schools built in Tulsa.

1905 – Kendall College president A. Grant Evans designed the Seal for the proposed State of Sequoyah.  In 1907 former Kendall student Gabe E. Parker, incorporated much of that into the Great Seal of Oklahoma.

1906 Frank Frantz was appointed to succeed Governor T. B. Ferguson, whose term of office had expired.

1906 – Congress passed the single statehood bill and it became a law June 14th.

1906 – Under the provisions of the enabling act, the delegates to the Constitutional Convention met in Guthrie, November 2oth, and was in session almost continuously until the latter part of April of the following year.

1907 – Election of first state officials was held Saturday, November 16th. C. N. Haskell, democrat, of Muskogee, was chosen first governor, defeating Frank Frantz, territorial governor, and candidate of the republican party.

1907 – Henry Kendall College is moved to Tulsa from Muskogee.

1909 – Crazy Snake Rebellion over allegations of some stolen smoked meat.

1910 – Lee Cruce, democrat, was elected governor, defeating Joe McNeal of Guthrie, the candidate of the republican party.

1914 – R. L. Williams, democrat, defeated John Fields.

1917 – Green Corn Rebellion.

1918 – J. B. A. Robertson, democrat, defeated H. G. McKeever

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Academy of Armor notes on Cooking, part 1

Book III, Chapter 6, p. 292-3

Being now outwardly furnished by such instruments as serve for our necessary covering; let us see what tools are used in arms by such trades as support out being, and without which there is no subsistence; these are principally three, the first is the Butcher, whose instruments of Slaughter, Blood, Wounds, and Death are as follows:

47XLVII. He Beareth Gules, a Butcher’s Cambril, Or: between two Seuers, and Raising Prick, Argent.  This is born by the name of Buncher.

B. A Cambrel between 3 knives O. Blades A. is born by Bucher.
A 3 Cambrels in Pale G. born by Cambwell, alias Cambell.
G a Fesse between three Raising Pricks A. Born by Prickett.

[Note:  A Cambrel is a bent piece of wood or iron used by butchers to hang carcasses of animals on. – OED]

48XLVIII He Beareth Azure, a Butcher’s Axe, between his Steel and Knife bendwise, Proper.  The Butcher or Slaughter-Man in the slaughter house uses the Axe to strike down Beasts, as Bulls, Cows, Heifers, and Oxen; and by the same instrument doth divide, cut and break their bones; also at the Shambles where they fell their meat both the Axe and the Cleaver are used to cut the Quarter of Beasts into smaller and more vendable pieces.

B 2 such axes in Salter, between 3 bulls heads couped, Argent. Horned and on a Chief O, a Boarshead G. between 2 Garbs V is the coat armour of the Company of Butchers.
A 3 Butcher’s Steels and Rings, B. Halves O. born by […]
B 3 Knives A Halves O, born by Knife.

The Butchers Steel hath a round turning Ring at the head or one handle by which he hangs it at his Apron strings on the left side, which is his only badge of being a Slaughter-Man: upon this steel, by a nimble and dexterous way they whet and sharpen the dull edge of the Slaughter-Knife.

49XLIX He Beareth Vert, a Dutch Butcher’s Cleever, and a Chopping Knife; the Chopping Knife is to mince and shred the Flesh off the Bones, small for Pyes and such like use, etc.

The Dutch Cleever or Chopping Knife, so called by reason it is much born by them in Aims (and is termed a hacker, or hack-mes) but seldom or never  born with us.

S 3 Dutch Cleevers in Pale A. born by Hacker.
G 3 such in Pale O born by S[…]. These are also termed in Pale [pointed] to the Sinister because their cuttings are […].

50L.  He beareth sable, three Punching Hooks in Pale, the haft […], and the third Angle Hooked, proper. By the help of the Punching Hook, the skin is with much ease taken off any beast, by striking and pricking between the Skin or Hide, and the Fleshwhich causeth a separation between them. This is born by the name [But]cher.

G  3 Punching Hooks in Fess A, handles O. is born by Skilmere. The usual Hook u sed by the Butcher hath but one Bend, but if it have more then term it double or treble as aforesaid.

51LII. He Beareth Argent, on a Hook issuing out of the Chief; a Leg of Veal proper. Some term it a Leg of Veal or Mutton hung by the ham-string on a hook […] Gules. This is a Cognizance belonging […] and for most Cooks shops […] felt hung in the window, or by its shape and figure in a sign over the door.


52LII. He Beareth Or, a Westphalia Ham, hung in an Iron Staple, proceeding out of Chief, Sable.  Some term it an Ham of Pork, or a Leg of Bacon ham-like.  The sweetest of Bacons is that which is said to come from Westphalia, because there they are fed with Walnuts and Chestnuts; many of our English Cheats with their feeding of Swine with Pease, Corn and Acorn (to sweeten the flesh) besides their Art used to colour them red, have come very near the Westphalian Ham, both in colour and taste, yet could never attain the full skill, and the reason is very plain; for that as we take Westphalia Bacon, is no other than the Ham of a Cub, or Young Bear, the delicate taste of whose flesh, our Bacon cannot attain unto by any Art.

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Academy of Armory TOC, Part 2

Please note that the material in this section section were never actually published by Holme, although apparently some manuscript pages may exist at the British Library.

The Second Part of the Third Book Treateth of Houshold Goods, Instruments of Recreation, Arms Offensive and Defensive, Field Fights, &c. With several other sorts of Mecanical Impliments, by which it is concluded.


Treateth of all sorts of Goods belonging, and useful for a House, and Family; and are necessary for a Kitchin, Hall, Parlour, or Lodging-room.


Treateth of all sorts of writing Instruments, Scrowls, Papers, Books, Libraries. Also such things as are necessary for Navigation, as Boats, Lighters, Ships, and Fire ships with Men-of-war: with all the terms given to an Anchor, Masts, Sails, Riggings, and every Part of a Ship, inward, and outward: The Names of all sorts of Boats, and Ships, with the terms of the Irons about them: with the Sailers Terms, when they are about Sailing: or Sea Fights.


Treateth of several sorts of Musical Instruments, both of VVind, and String Musick: And such as are plaid on by the Hands, or with Sticks. Things for Gaming, as Cards, Dice, Tables, Tennis, Hunting, Birding, Hawking, Fishing and VValking: VVith the Names, and terms belonging to each part of the aforesaid Instruments, and of their manner of Plays and Exercises.

In the Second Plate of this Chapter, is an Addition of some few things that should have been in Chap. 14. about Houshold Goods: And in Chap. 15. amongst things belonging to Shipping, and to be added to this Chapter unto the Instruments for Hunting, Birding Fishing, and Chess, and to be as a Supplement to the succeeding Chap. 17, 18, 19. Of some Offensive and defensive Weapons, and Souldiers: Also of the manner of Fortifying of Cities, and great Towns with Walls, or Bulwarks, with the terms used by Souldiers in their Fights, Sieges, Marching, Encampings: With Ingineers terms, for all the parts of Mudwall Fortifications.


Treateth of Offensive and Defensive Arms, as Armour, from head to foot, and how each part is termed: Of Spears, Lances, Bows and Arrows, Clubs, Bills, Halberts, with such like; with the Names of every Part and Member of the said several Warlike Weapons.


Treateth of all sorts of flying Field Colours, as the Standard, Ensign, Penon, Banner and Guydon. Leading Staves, Swords, Rapiers, Fauchions; with great and small Artillery and Engines for Battery, with all the parts, and terms used about the same, in every branch and member thereof, and the things belonging to them.


Treateth of men at Arms, and the words of Command and Posture for the Pike, Pike and Target, Musket, the several beatings of the Drum, the Offices of Souldiers from the lowest to the highest Commander. The terms for carrying, and displaying of an Ensign, the Honour, and Dignity of an Ensign.

The Play at Foils, or Rapier, with the terms used at it, and Sword play: with necessary things fit to be known in the Art of Defence. The Names and Places of all the Roman, Greek, and English Army-Officers, from the first to the last in Command. The 6 Points of War sounded by the Trumpet. The manner of Mustering, and the way of Horse-firing, and Office of all Horse-Officers, from first to last.

Of Combats or Duels for Life, the ancient manner of Challenges, in what Causes to be denied, preparations for it, and the manner of the Combatants coming to the Field, the Victors manner of Return. The original of Tilts and Tourneyments, the Exercise and Prize. Barriers, and the manly Exercise thereof, who admitted to these Heroick Exercises.

Terms for the Riding, and Exercise of the War-horse, Race-horse, and Hackney. The Exercise, Motions, Words of Command therein, and their manner of Fireing, and Fighting: Of the use of Iron Chariots, Wheels, and Elephants in War. The manner of Exerciseing the Foot Company, with the terms given to each part of it, being drawn up into a Body: Of Distances, Facings, Doublings, Conversions, Countermarches, Wheelings; with Observations upon all Motions.

Of the Marching, Imbattailing, Encamping, of an Army; both by the Greeks, Romans, and our Modern Armies: Of the Name and term given to the several parts, or divisions of an Army. Of the manner of Fireing both by Forlorns, Ranks Divisions, Vollies, &c. Of Victory, and of the Greek and Roman manner of Triumphs after Victory: and Gifts and Rewards given to Souldiers for valour and service.

Of Souldiers Punishments; with brief discourses of the Souldiers Priviledges, Wages, Donatives, Apparel, Hostages, Prisoners, Rescues, Paroles, Leagues, and Allies, Treaties, Enemies, Ambassadors, and Dismissions, or Disbanding after Wars

In the second Plate of this Chapter, Treateth of some sorts of Armor both Defensive and Offensive, used by the Ancient Romans, and in our modern times, since the use of Fire-Arms. Instrument belonging to a Gardiner; a Wax and Tallow Chandler, and the Lanthorn-maker. With several other Tools and Instruments belonging to Trades formerly omitted and therefore set in this place.


Treateth of the Instruments belonging to a Silk Weaver, Button-maker, Printers of Books, Letter Founders, Pin-makers, and Plate-workers, with some Castles, and Heathenish Temple, Alters or Tables, used by those peo[ple] before Christianity.


Treateth of such Instruments as are used by Tin-men, or workers of Tin Plate; Brass Founders, Cutlers, Tobacco pipe-makers, and Tobacco cutters, with their cutting Engine, Presses, Mill, and Wheel. Also Tools belonging to a Pastry-Cook; and such as are used about Angleing and Fishing, with several sorts of Nets, Hooks, and Decoying Wills. And in the end, those that belong to the Sope-Maker, and Sugar-Boiler.


The Fourth Book Treateth of the Art of Blazon, both of Single and Double Coats, according as the Charges are interposed with the Ordinaries, or the Ordinaries with them; of Impaleing, and Marshalling of Coats, according to the Degrees of Persons. Badges of Kingdoms; Orders and Processions of State, and at Coronations: The Solemnizing of Funerals, with Precedency of Persons.


Treateth of Coats of single Charges, and so proceeding to the Number ten: how Blazoned when Charges are in place of the Ordinaries, on, or between them: or if they be interposed with the Charges: or if confusedly commixt one with another.


Treateth of Examples of Coats, which have Variety of Ordinaries, and Charges, in one and the same Bearing. Also of Coats, which are Charged with Variety of Charges, without any Ordinaries interposing.


Treateth of the Marshalling part of Heraldry, which is to impale Coats together, as Baron and Femme; or according to the Functions of Persons, putting the Spiritual and Temporal Coats together. Also of Quartering of Coats, according to the number of Heirs Married withal; or else according to Coats by the Gift of Princes. And lastly assigning to each Family his due difference as there are branched out of the main stock, or House: giving such those Rebatements of Honor, who have carried themselves according to their Significations.


Treateth of the Adorning of Arms above the Escochion, that is with Crown, Miters, Caps, or Hats, according to the degrees of Persons. Of the several ways Crests have been born, and in what, before the use of Wreaths: And of the variously contriving of Crests, contrary to simple Charges, of which there is set down many Examples, of things between; things pierced, and things held, or supported, by Crests.


Treateth of Beasts in several Postures, Arms diversly bended, Demy-Persons, and in whole, in various Actions: and lastly, several things mixt together for one Crest.


Treateth of the Marshalling of Coats, by adorning them about, either with Compartments, Garters, Collars of Esses, Scarffs, Branches; or else on the side of the Escochions, which is by Supporters, Swords, Feathers, Crosiers, and Crosses; or else by things under the Escochion by Escrowles, Badges of Honor, and Emblems, of such Persons, Places, and Dignities. And in the last place, giving Examples of Mantlings, both Ancient and Modern, according to the Degrees, and Offices of Persons, whether Spiritual or Temporal.


Treateth of several Forms of Supporters, composed of, and from divers Proportions; or Examples of divers Antique Supporters, drawn forth according to the Fancy of the Bearers.


Treateth of the Marshalling of whole Atchievements, due and belonging to each Degree, from the Peasant to the Prince; with all their Titles of Worship, Honor, and Dignity; with the Blazon, of all the Coats of the Nobility of England, in their several Degrees, with their Crests and Supporters.


Treateth of the Badges, or Tokens of Kingdoms, whereby one is known, or distinguished from the other: the Ensigns, or Banners of all the European Kingdoms; displayed in their proper Colours: the Ensigns, or Coa… or Seals, of the Cities and Towns Corporate in England Blazoned; the Badges of Houses, as University Colledges, Halls, Inns of Courts, Abbies, and such like.


Treateth of the Badges of Princes, and Noble Persons, with the Tokens, and Cognizance of their Offices, Degrees, and Orders: both Military and Civil, Spiritual and Temporal. The Signs, Marks, and Tokens of Armies, distinguishing of Regiments, and Companies, that each Souldier may know his Leader and Company. Also the Coats and Cognizance of Trades, and Tradesmen; with the Mark used by Merchants, and such as Traffick beyond Seas.


Treateth of the Orders, and Processions of great Persons Baptized, with the Ceremonies attending such magnificent Solemnities. Also of the Order and Manner of the Solemnization of Marriages of great Personages; several Presidents of such described.


Treateth of the Pompous Progression, and Ceremonies of several great Princes, and Potentates, at their Inauguration, and Crowning; and of divers Kings and Queens riding in Triumph through the City of London, before their Coronations; their going to Parliament; with several other Processions of State, both in this Kingdom, and in other Foreign Places: with the Feasts and Banquets used at the time of such Ceremonies. Also of the Precedency of all Orders, and Dignities, according to their Office, and Place and Birth.


Treateth of Funerals for all degrees of Persons, as of Gentlemen, Esquires, Knights, and Baronets; the manner of Foreign Funerals, both Ancient, and Modern; as Iews, Greeks, Romans, &c.


Treateth of the Funerals of a Baron, Viscount, Earl, a Bishop, and Arch-bishop; with Persons in high Offices, and Places of great Dignity; with the Form, and Descriptions of Hearses, Monuments, and Trophies of Honour set over them.


Treateth of the Funeral of a Marquess, Duke, Prince, or any Great Potentate: the Forms of ther Hearses, with other Funeral Ceremonies, with which all is concluded.

Post Funera nihil.


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Academy of Armory TOC, Part 1


The First Book Treateth generally of the Rules of Heraldry as to the Honorable Ordinaries how they have been Anciently and Modernly termed, with the several Ways or Methods of Blazon.

Treateth of the Original, and Office of Heraulds, their Colledge, and Fees

Treateth of the Shields and Bucklers, their Various Names, of what was made, and the diverse Forms of them, how used: and what colours have been used of them, their Signification, and worthiness of one above another, and of the points of the Escochion.

Treateth of the Antiquity of Arms, and first Painting of Shields; the Colours used in Arms, and Rules of Blazon in General, and in Particular; with the several ways of Blazoning of Arms.
Of the Honorable Ordinaries, and their Composition according to their several Lines.  As of the Chief and its diverse ways of Bearing. On the Pale; and Pile; the Gyron, and Canton; with their several ways of composition.

Treateth of the Bend, Bendlett, and Cost: The Fesse, the Barr, and Barrulett.  The Escochion, the Treasure and Orle: With the Flanche, and Flanques, according to their several Compositions.

Treateth of all Sorts of Crosses, that are in Arms and their Names by whome they are born.

Treateth of the Cheveron, the Cheveronell, and the Couple Close: The Salter, and Frett: The Roundlett, with its Terms answerable to the Colour.  Of the Loseng, Fusill, and Masele.  Of the Gutte, or Drop, and its diverse Blazoning.  Of the Bordures, and their several Compositions.

Treateth of Furrs, and Tinctures of Fields, according to several Forms and Shapes: As by Abatements, by Ordinaries, Per Pile, Pale, Fess, Bend, and Per Cheveron.  As also Tinctures of Fields by a twofold Ordinary, as Per Pale and Pile; Per Pale and Salter, &c.  Also Tinctures of Fields of Obscure Ordinaries, as Barry Bendy, Losengy, &c.

Treateth of the File and Lambeaux: Of the bearing of Ordinaries, one upon another; Between one anotherl By the side one of another; and Commixt.  Also of Ordinaries Diminishing one anotherl and Piercing or Fretting one another.

Treateth of some Sorts of Bearings, which are Omited in the Former Chapters.  To all the foresaid Bearings, are set down the Name or Surnames of such Famileys, as have such Charges in their Coats of Arms.


The Second Book Treateth in General of all Essential and Created Beings, in whome there is either Life, or Motion, as Vegetative, Sensitives, and Rational Creatures.
Treateth of things in Heaven, as GOD the Father, the Son, and Holy Spirit, Cherubims, and Seraphims: The differences of the Heavens. The Description of the Heathen Gods and Goddesses; Demi Gods and Countrey-Gods, and Goddesses.  The Holy Order of Angels, the Infernal Order of the Devils, And the Names the Devil is called by.

Of the Heavenly Sphere, with its Circles Names. Of the Planets, and how described; And the Signs of the Zodiak. With the Names of the Northern and Southern Stars. Of the Sun and Moon. Of the Element of Air, and Wind, with the products thereof.

Of the Element of Fire, and its Products. The Reason of the Change of the Moon, and its Eclipse; Of the Aspects, and their Characters: With some Terms used by Astronomers, and Astrologers, concerning the Celestial Sphere.


Treateth of the Element of Water, the Several Sorts, and Terms of Waters. Of the Terrestrial Globe, and Element of Earth, with its Products; Of the Fom Parts of the World, and what Kingdom, Countreys, and Islands, are in each Part.

Of Minerals, Metals, and Moulds. Of Stones, and Precious Gems.


Treateth of Trees of all Sorts, Shrubs, Dead Wood, and Perished Trees: Of Roots, Mushrooms, and several Sorts of Corn, and Grass.


Treateth of all Sorts of Flowers, Leaves, and Herbs; with their Descriptions, and Colours. Of Fruitage, and Flowerage.


Treateth of the Affinity of Leaves; Also of Seeds, Pods, and Fruit. Of Some Trees before omitted in the Third Chapter. With the Terms used by Herbalists, about the Roots, Stocks, Leaves, and Fruit of Trees: With other Terms used by them.


Treateth of the Affinity of Leaves, and Flowers, belonging to Herbs and Plants; With the Name assigned the Leaf according to its shape and form. Also such Terms as are given to Clusters of Flowers, according to the form they grow in. And Names to perticular, or single Flowers, according to their kinds. With Terms used by Florists and Gardeners; and the Instruments they use. Of the signification of Trees, Plants, Fruits, Flowers, and Herbs used in Coats of Arms.


Treateth of the several Kinds of Beasts, and Cattle, the Terms for all their parts, when they are in Compa∣nies, according to their Age: Also Terms for there Engendering, and bringing forth Young. The Voices of Beasts, Lodging and Feeding: With the names of the Male and Female, of Beasts. The several postures of Beasts; how Termed, when standing upright Of Horsemanship, with the Terms used about the Horse, as its Parts, Bones, Diseases.


Treateth of divers and various Beasts, Vermin, Lizards, and Amphibious four-footed Creatures. With the terms used, for the several ways of bending the Legs, and Arms in Heraldry.


Treateth of several other Beasts and Cattle, Foreign and Domestick, the parts of a Bull and Cow; their Diseases, the Benefit and Blessing of Cows, Terms used by Cowherds, and Instruments used by them.

Shepherds Terms about Sheep, their Parts, Diseases, and Observations in them. Swineherds Terms about Swine, their Parts and Diseases. Hunters Terms, sorts of Dogs their parts, and Diseases.
Of Insects, Bees, Worms, Serpents, their Voices; terms about Bees and Honey; sorts of Flies and Butterflies, and of what Worms they proceed. Of the several terms used for the turning of Serpents Tails in Heraldry.


Treateth of Monsterous Creatures, Amphibious Creatures, and Bigenerous Creatures; of the Caterpiller, and several other sorts of Worms, and Insects, not mentioned before. The signification of Beasts in Armory.


Treateth of Fowl, and Birds of Prey, with other Birds of the Woods, and Mountains, as also Domestick. Observations of Birds of Prey. Sorts of Hawks: The names of the Males and Females: and according to their Age: The parts of an Hawk, their Diseases, and the terms used by Falconers: And things used about Hawks. Of Cocking, and the terms used by Cock-masters, of Cockpit-laws.


Treateth of several other sorts of Fowls, Foreign and Domestick: Also of Monstrous Birds.


Treateth of several Foreign Birds, with their Parts, and Members, as born in Arms, not mentioned in the former Chapters. The signification of Birds used in Arms; the parts of all Birds in General, inwards and outwards; with other remarkable things in them, and not in other Creatures. Voices of Birds, how termed in Companies. Of Poultry, and Terms for their Age. With the Explanation of Naturalists terms, in their Description of Birds.


Treateth of Fish of all sorts, their Covering, Form, and Shape; the Parts of a Fish. Of their names according to the Age, and how termed in Companies. As also of all sorts of Shell-fish.


Treateth of other sorts of Fish, and some Shell fish, omitted in the last Chapter Of Monstrous shaped fish.


Treateth of Monsters of the Sea, and Fish of lesser knowledge, because but rarely seen. The signification of Fish used in Arms: The terms used by Historians in the Description of Fish; Explained, as also terms of Blazoning.


Treateth of Mankind, of all the parts, as born in Arms: with the Cyrurgeons, and Anatomists terms used for all the members of the Body, inwards and outward: Of the Senses, and various Voices of Men: And Names given to the Male and Female, according to their Ages. Men and Women Metamorphosed.

Time in all its parts of Time, how severally described, or drawn into Emblems, and Figures; and other things depending upon Time, illustrated. Of Men punished in Hell.

The Emblems of the Faculties of the Mind or Soul; and the Passions, and a Description of them. Of the Diseases of the Body inward, and outward. The terms of the Art of Palmestry, and Names of the Lines in the Hand. And of several Words and terms used by Chyrurgions, and Anatomists, about Man’s Body.


Treateth of several things omitted in the Chapters of this Second Book, which are here added, and are to be transferred to their mentioned Places.


The Third Book Treateth of Vestments for the Ornament of the Body according to Places, and Esteme, with all the I … of the Liberal Siences, or that are used by Mechanick Trades, and who beareth such things in their Coats Armor.


OF the Ornaments for the Head, as Crowns, …rels, Caps of Dignity, Morions, Miters … Turbots, Hats, Hoods and Tanks. O … for the Feet, as Hose, Startops, Garters, Shoos … and Broges, with the terms of all parts of them.


Treateth of Bands, Ruffs, Gorgets, Sleeves, Manches, Gloves, Coats, Dublets, Robes, cloakes, Girles Scarfs. Ornaments for the Hands and Fingers, as Rings, Annulets, Bracelets, Chains of Gold, Jewels, Scepters Monds, Maces, Virges, Swords of State, Crossiers, Rods, Crosses, Crucifixes, and Cruches. Purse of Estate, Purses with the several Names, or terms given to each part of them.

Also all sorts of Coins, or Moneys, used amongst the Ancient Iews, Greeks, and Romans, and what value it beareth with our English Money. Also all our English and Scotch Coins, both of Silver and Gold: With the Names and Descriptions of all the sorts of Coin used in our neighbouring Kingdoms and Countries, Alphabetically set down; whether Brass, Silver, or Gold; and their value with ours.


Treateth of Emperors and Kings; of their Robes and Ensigns of Regality, the Ceremonies of their Coronations, Offices for those Festivals; and Officers and Servants belonging to the King’s Houshold, with their Fees.

A Description of several Ancient Emperors, Kings and Princes; with the 9 Worthies. The Ceremonies at the Creation of a Prince, Arch-duke, Duke, Marquess and Earl: Of the Domestick and State Officers belonging to the Earl of Chester. A Viscount and Baron, and the manner of their Creations.

Several sorts of Barons, Knights: Orders and Statutes for Knights of the Garter, Officers belonging to the Garter. Creation and Habet of a Knight of the Bath. A Knight Banneret and Baronet. A Knight how made, and degrading of Knighthood: A Catalogue of the several Orders of Knights Secular.

The Creation of a King and Herauld of Arms, The Office a Major, with the Officers of a City, or Corporation, and their Habits. The Lord Chief … his Habit. A Serjeant at Law his Habit, and Ceremony at his making. The Officers in the Common Law, and Courts of Chancery: The Chancelors. … of Divinity, Civil Law, and Physick; their …, and Ceremonies at the receiving of their De… The Officers in the Universities, and Degrees … Scholars, with their Habits: And of a Beads man, an Hospitaller, or Alms man.

Of the Esquire, and the several Degrees of Esquires. Of Gentlemen, and the several Degrees of them, and how made so. Of Yeomen, Freeholders, Pages, Servants, and Labourers: With the several sorts of them A Countrey Clown, or Bore described.

The several Countrey Occupations, as the Mower, with what terms is used about Hav making. Thrasher, with several Terms of Husbandry about Tillage, Sowing, and Reaping; Thrashing, Winding of Corn.

Of the Huntsman, Courser, Forester, and Faulconer, with their Terms of Art.

Also the several Occupations in Cities, as Cooks with their Terms in Cookery; and how to send up Dishmeats in their Order, at Grand Feasts. Of the Baker, Tanner, Glower, Currier, with their Terms.

And the Butcher, with his Terms for all the pieces of Meat cut in the Shambles; either from, or in Beef, or Veal, Mutton, Pork, and Brawn.

With the Smith, Farrier, Gun-smith, Lorrinor, Spurrier, Gold-smith, Jeweller, Lapidarie, Pinner, or Pinmaker, Needle-maker, Tyn-man, and Cutler with his several sorts of cutting Weapons. Also Pewterers, Founders, or Brasiers, Plummers, Card-makers, and Saddlers, with the several parts of a Saddle, Bridle, Pillion, and Side-saddle.

Of the Taylor, with the parts of the Doublet, Coat, Breeches, Cloak, Womens Gowns, Mantues, Wastcoats, and Petticoats. The Upholsterers, with their terms for the several parts of a Bed, and Hanging about a Room. Of the Semster, Laundress, Needle-work Mistress, with the severall terms of Needle-work.

The Shoomaker, with the names of St. Hugh’s Bones, and the terms of their Size. And of the Embroiderer, the Joyner, Carpenter, Tallow-chandler, and Waxchandler, Fisher, or Drawer, Angler, Water-leaders, Beer-Brewers, Malt-makers, Fietchers, Bowyers, and Stringers; with the terms used in their several Arts, and Occupations explained.

And the Hutler, or Huxter, Gardiner, Flax-dresser, with the Ordering of Flax, and Hemp: And Weaver, Cooper, Masons, Stone-cutters, and Stone-getters Potters, Rope-makers, Printers, Barbers, and Hat-makers, with the several sorts of Hats; and terms of Art used in their Misteries or Trades.

An Astronomer, and Astrologer, how they Reckon the Sabbath days throughout the year; to know the moveable Feasts in the year, and the time of the English Kings Reign, with a Calendar of all the Saints days, Jewish Months, with Evil and Good days for any Employ in the year. Of Geometry, and the names of severall parcels of Lands: Of Arithmetick, and how the Jews, and Hebrews, Romans, Greeks, and Arabians, used to express numbers; of casting up Sum•• by Counters, with several terms taught in the Art of Numeration; with the Description of several Antient Philosophers.

Of the Painter, Graver, Etcher, Glass-painter, and Glasier; And Men famous for Invention, and improvers of Arts. The Musitianer, with several sorts of Musick, both of Voice, Strings, and Wind; with their Musical terms.

The Crate-carrier, Porter, Tinker, Sowgelder, Bedlam, Chimney-sweeper: with what Instruments and terms they use. Of the Witchman, or Salster, the Sailer, with his Terms of Navigation. The Begger, Cripple, and Vagabonds, with their Canting Terms; the Morrice-dancers, with the several Terms used in modest Dances.


Treateth of Holy, and Religious Persons, and Orders; as of our Saviour Jesus Christ’s Birth, Life, and Passion, Resurrection, and Ascention; the Jews High Priest, with the terms of his Vestments, and manner of Consecration. The Bishop, his Election and Consecration, as in the Romish Church. A Dean, a Mass-priest, Doctor of the Civil Law, with the names of their Ecclesiastical Vestments.

Of the Orders of Monks, Friers, and Jesuits, their Rules, receiving into Monasteries, and Consecrations: Of the Election of Abbots, and their Consecration, the several Officers in a Monastery; the Places in a Monastery, and their Priviledges. The Canons Secular, the degrees of Church Officers, their Vestments, and Consecrations; the Canons Regular, their Vestments, and Orders.

Of the Knights Templars, and Hospitallers, and their Rules: With other Ecclesiastical, or Spiritual Kts of several Orders, and manner of their Installing. Of Hermits and Friers of several Orders; with Pilgrims, or Palmers.

The Description of several Catholick Saints, and of what Countreys, and of what Trades they are Patrons. The Description of the four Evangelists, and twelve Apostles.

Of the Protestant Bishops, their Habit, Election, and Consecration: A Doctor of Divinities Habit, and how made a Doctor: a Minister or Parson, and a Deacon, how Ordained, and their Canonical Habits. A Master of Arts, and his Habit: Of Martyrs. Rhetorick, and Logick described, with some terms of Art used therein.

Also of a Lady Abbess, Nuns, and Religious Women of several Orders, and of their admission into the Nunnery, and Consecration, and Habit. The Description of several Women Saints, and of the seven Cardinal Virtues, and other Virtues. Also the Description of the seven Deadly Sins, with other Wickednesses. The Sibylls described: and Poverty.


Treateth of several sorts of Countrey Men and VVomen, as the Islander, Russian, Muscovian, Tartarian, Polander, Iew, Turk, Roman, Irish, Aegyptian, Chinensian, Arabian, English, French, Spanish, German, Britaine, Indian, Morocco, Brisilian, Virginian, &c. with their Habits, Religion, and Climate of the Countrey; the Description of the nine VVorthy VVomen. Apparel now used by VVomen.

Of a Queen, Lady, Virago, or an Amazon, a VVoman, and Maid, a Shepderdess. The Salutation, with its Honours described. Of VVrestling, and the terms used therein. Labour in Vain, with other Bearings both of Men and VVomen, both in Coats and Cognizances of Persons and Houses.

In the Additional Plate, is described more sorts of Crowns, also of some Hoods, Caps, and other Ornaments for the Head, with Garter, and Boots: which should have been incerted in chap. 1. Also to chap. 2. add some Variety of Sleeves, or Maunches, anciently and now in use.

Of the Description of the Liberal Art or Science of Grammar, with some terms belonging thereunto. Of the Merchant, with several terms about Weights, and Merchandize Goods; the Bricklayers Tools, and the terms used in their Trade.

The Billiard Play, and what terms they used therein; Chess Play, and its terms. Tennis Play, and terms used in that Exercise. The Slater, his Tools, and the terms for Slates. The Carter, and his Gee-wo terms.

The Thrower, or Turner, with their terms. Also certain Heads, and Faces, which should have been in chap 3. Of the Roper, and Upholsterer, their tools or working Instruments, with their several Parts and Members, how termed.


Treateth of all the Instruments of Huswifery, and Spinning of Wool, Flax, or Hemp, and Jarsey; with the Names of all the parts of the said Instruments. Also the Working Tools of a Weaver, Fuller, Sheerman, or Clothworker, Taylor, Harmaker, Shoomaker, Baker, Butcher, Cook, or Victualler, Cooper, Beer-brewer, and Water-carrier; with the parts of a Pump, and the several sorts of them.


Treateth of Smiths Tools, with several Iron-works made by them, their names, and terms for their several Parts, and Members. The Farriers, Spurriers, and Lorrillers Tools, and VVorks made by them: As also the Glasiers, Imbroiderers, Goldsmiths, and the Plummers … to work with. And Instruments of Punishment for offending persons, according to the degree of the crime.

In the Second Plate of this Chapter, is the description of some Tools of Trades omitted in the two former Chapters, viz. of the Butchers, Bakers, White-coopers, Beer-brewers, Smiths, Lock-smiths, Farriers, Spurriers, Lorrillers, Plummers, and Instruments for Punishment. Also some few things belonging to Husandry, omitted in the Subsequent Chapter 8.


Treateth of the Tools, and Instruments of Husbandry, as Plowing Reaping; also such as belong to the Dairy, Stable, Cow-house, and Pasture. The things about Water and Wind Mills. Tools belonging to a Bricklayer, Mason, Pavier, Slater, and Plasterer; of Chariots, Coaches, Sedans, Selas••s, and Horse-litters. Of the Saddle, with the terms belonging to each … of it, the several sorts of Saddles, with the Sadlers tools which he works withall.

In the Second Plate of this Chapter, is the description of some Tools omitted in Chap. 6. belonging to the VVeavers, Clothworkers, and Shoomakers: with a further Procession of Tradesmens Tools, as the Tanners, Fletchers, Curriers, Joyners, Carpenters and their Engines, for drawing of great Peeces; Turners in wood, Brass, Ivory, or with the Engine: the Dry •lover. And Geometrical Instruments, to be added to them in the next Chapter.


Treateth further of Joyners, and Carpenters Tools; and such as belong to the Limner, or Painter; the wet Glover, Stationer, and Book binder: Instruments for the measuring of Lands, with certaine terms given to several Geometrical Lines, and Cubical Bodies.

In the second Plate of this Chapter, is the Tools belonging to a Pewterer, Jeweller, and Lapidary; also the working Instruments of a Comb maker, Card maker, Glasier, Felt-maker, Needle-maker, Inkhorn-maker, and Lanthorn-maker.

In the third Plate of this Chapter, it treateth of the omission of some Tools belonging to Husbandry, and Millery; the Mason, Slater, Bricklaver, Plasterer, & Sadler, in Chapter 8. As also of som Chyrurgions Instruments, and Edifices, omitted in the following, Chapters. 10, 11, 12.


Treateth of the Roman, Saxon, German, High Dutch French, Italian, Spanish, Greek, and Hebrew Letters, with their Accents; with the ancient British Characters.

Of the Romans notes of Antiquity, and Numbers, and how expressed by Letters. Also the Breviation of VVords anciently used in old VVritings, explained.

In the Plate of Letters in this Chapter, placed folio. 416 a. It treateth of the Secretary, or mixt Letters; Chancery, or Sett Hand, and Court Hand writting, with the right Pronouncing of the English, Dutch, and French, &c. Letters. Also the Alphabets, of the Goths, Celts, Normans, Franks, Irish, Manks, Phoenice, Egypt, Turky, Ancient Greeks, Ethiopia, Phrigia, Illyrick, Slavonia, Croatick, Dalmatia, Israel, Samaria, Chaldia, Syriack, India, Sarjinia, Arminia, and Arabia, and how pronounced.


Treateth of the Instruments belonging to a Barber, and a Chyrurgion; with Vessels, and other usefull Instruments for Distillation, or Squeezing out of Oyls, and Liquors.


Is a Continuance of Chyrurgions Instruments: Also Instruments for Leger de main, or Art of Juggleing. And of Dweling places, as Huts, Tents, Tabernacles, Houses, Towers, Cities.


Is a Continuance of several Forms of Towers, Castles, VValls, Arches, Churches, Chappels, Cathedrals; with the Bells, Alters, Fonts, and other Utensils belonging to the Jewish and Christian Churches. VVith all the terms of Art given to all parts of a Pillar, according to the five Orders.

The second Plate of this Chapter, Treateth of some other sorts of Buildings of Towers, VValls, Pillars, and Castles. To which is added several sorts of Knots, and interlacing of Lines, and Fretting of Angles, with other Extravagant Things, found in Coats of Arms: which could not fitly be set under any head, or order; therefore as Heteroclites, are set by themselves.

Thus far have I with much Cost and Pains, caused to be Printed for the publick benefit; what remains (and is ready for the Press) is as followeth in the succeeding Contents: which if encouraged by Liberal and free Contributers, may appear in the World, else will sleep in the Bed of its Conception, and never see the Glorious Light of the Sun.



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Chronology of Lovecraft Stories and Call of Cthulhu Scenarios


  • No Man’s Land


  • The Haunting (Rulebook)
  • Late summer – The Spawn (The Great Old Ones)
  • Winter – Still Waters (The Great Old Ones)
  • December – Under the Boardwalk (Farewell my Sanity)


  • February- March – Tell Me, Have You Seen the Yellow Sign? (The Great Old Ones)
  • Summer – One in Darkness (The Great Old Ones)
  • Late – The Warren (Shadows of Yog Sothoth)


  • Captives of Two Worlds (H.P. Lovecraft’s Dreamlands)
  • Westchester House (The Asylum and other tales, Secrets of San Francisco, The Cthulhu Casebook)
  • The Pale God (The Great Old Ones)


  • The Color out of Space
  • January-March – Horror on the Orient Express [Campaign]
  • June 1st-6th The Half Moon (The Secrets of New York)
  • July 16—Rats in the Walls.
  • August 16 – An Enchanted Evening (Farewell my Sanity)
  • August 19- 24 – Horror’s Heart [Campaign]


  • The Old Damned House (Mansions of Madness)
  • January 12 — Shadows of Yog-Sothoth [Campaign] (Shadows of Yog Sothoth)


  • The Auction (The Asylum and other tales)
  • Slow Boat (Fearful Passages)
  • Armored Angels (Fearful Passages)
  • Mary (Before the Fall)
  • January — Masks of Nyarlathotep [Campaign]
  • February – The Crack’d and Crook’d Manse (Mansions of Madness)
  • February-April – The Call of Cthulhu
  • October 31 — Vile Bodies (The London Guidebook)
  • October 28th-November 3rd – Old Fellow that Bunyip (Terror Australis)
  • Soon after November 2nd – Pride of Yirrimburra (Terror Australis)


  • Tatterdemalion (Fatal Experiments)
  • Mid-year – Sleigh Ride (Fearful Passages)


  • In the Shadows of Death (In the Shadows)
  • Song of the Spheres (In the Shadows)
  • The Innsmouth Connection (Before the Fall)
  • Spring – Bad Moon Rising (The Great Old Ones)
  • March 15 — The Thing on the Threshold [Campaign]
  • May 2 — Spawn of Azathoth [Campaign]
  • July – The Shadow over Innsmouth.
  • Summer – Sept 22nd 1929 – Day of the Beast [Campaign]
  • October 15 — Devil’s Hole (In the Shadows)
  • Late October – Escape From Innsmouth (Escape From Innsmouth)
  • November 27-1928—The Whisperer in Darkness.


  • The Condemned (Arkham Unveiled)
  • A Restoration of Evil (Keeper’s Screen, 5.6E)
  • Edge of Darkness (Rulebook)
  • Early – Dark Rivals (Dead Reckonings)
  • January 27th-July 4th – The Shadow over Hollywood (Secrets of Lost Angeles)
  • February – The Raid on Innsmouth (Escape From Innsmouth)
  • April 15-17 – Behold the Mother (Dead Reckonings)
  • May 3 — A Little Knowledge (Arkham Unveiled)
  • June – Trail of Yig (Tales of the Miskatonic Valley)
  • Early Summer – Dead in the Water (Kingsport: The City in the Mists)
  • Summer – Dreams & Fancies (Kingsport: The City in the Mists)
  • August 1 – September 22 – The Dunwich Horror.
  • Late August – Dust to Dust (Dead Reckonings)
  • August 26th-30th – Regiment of Dread (Tales of the Miskatonic Valley)
  • Fall – Dead of Night (Arkham Unveiled)
  • October 13-15 – The Curse of Anubis (Taint of Madness)
  • October – November – Fade to Gray (Tales of the Miskatonic Valley)
  • October 17- January 1930 – Tatters of the King [Campaign]
  • Between November and September 1929 – Return to Dunwich
  • Late – The Mauretania (The Asylum and other tales)


  • A Painted Smile (Tales of the Miskatonic Valley)
  • Late Summer/Early Autumn – The Watcher in the Valley (Tales of the Miskatonic Valley)
  • October 31 – January 15, 1930 – With Malice Aforethought (Adventures in Arkham Country)



  • Madness of the Ancestors (Secrets of Kenya)
  • November 6 — King of Chicago (King of Chicago)



  • The Lost Temple of Yig (D20 Gamemaster’s Pack)
  • September 1 – January 29 1934 – Beyond the Mountains of Madness [Campaign]


  • Between 1934 and 1937 – The Pits of Bendal-Dolum (Terror from the Stars)


  • The Shadow Out of Time

Early 1920s

  • Secrets of the Congo

No Date Given

  • Old Acquaintance (Before the Fall)
  • The Occulted Light (Before the Fall)
  • Fear of Flying (Fearful Passages)
  • The Iron Ghost (Fearful Passages)
  • Rigid Air (Fearful Passages)
  • Along the indus (Fearful Passages)
  • The Curse of Chaugnar Faugn (Curse of the Cthonians)
  • The City Without a Name (Curse of the Cthonians)
  • The Asylum (The Asylum and other tales)
  • The Madman (The Asylum and other tales)
  • Black Devil Mountain (The Asylum and other tales)
  • Cats of Lamu (Secrets of Kenya)
  • Savage Lands (Secrets of Kenya)
  • Wooden Death (Secrets of Kenya)
  • The Horror of the Glen (Green and Pleasant Land)
  • Death in the Post (Green and Pleasant Land)
  • Hills Rise Wild (Arkham Unveiled)
  • The Trail of Tsathoggua [Campaign] – Likely between 1925 and 1928.
  • Corbitt (Mansions of Madness)
  • The Plantation (Mansions of Madness)
  • Mansion of Madness (Mansions of Madness)
  • Closed Casket (Secrets)
  • A Love in Need (Secrets)
  • The Unsealed Room (Secrets)
  • A Cult of One (Secrets)
  • Serendipity (Minions)
  • Six Foot Plot (Minions)
  • Terrible Head (Minions)
  • Lost Property (Minions)
  • Circle of Friends (Minions)
  • Ghost Net (Minions)
  • Painted in a Corner (Minions)
  • Where Satan Fell (Minions)
  • Mouthbreathers (Minions)
  • Horror Man (Minions)
  • Stone Shifter (Minions)
  • Crab Canon (Minions)
  • Lazy Eye (Minions)
  • Watering Hole (Minions)
  • Transgression (The Secrets of New York)
  • Pickman’s Student (H.P. Lovecraft’s Dreamlands)
  • The Lemon Sails (H.P. Lovecraft’s Dreamlands)
  • To Sleep, Perchance to Dream (H.P. Lovecraft’s Dreamlands)
  • The Whore of Barharna (Adventures in Arkham Country)
  • Bless the Beasts and Children (Adventures in Arkham Country)
  • The Dark Woods (Adventures in Arkham Country)
  • The Secret of Marseilles (King of Chicago)
  • Paper Chase (Cthulhu Companion)
  • The Mystery of Loch Feinn (Cthulhu Companion)
  • The Songs of Fantari (Fatal Experiments)
  • The Colour of His Eyes (Secrets of San Francisco)
  • Beyond the Edges (Secrets of San Francisco)
  • Freak Show (Tales of the Miskatonic Valley)
  • City Beneath the Sands (Terror Australis)
  • House on the Edge (Kingsport: The City in the Mists)
  • To Wake, Perchance to Dream (Taint of Madness)
  • Turnabout (Taint of Madness)
  • The Haunter of the Dark.
  • The Thing on the Doorstep.
  • Dreams in the Witch House.

No Year Given

  • After 1921 – Blackness Beneath (Secrets of Lost Angeles)
  • Pre-1923 – Shadow over Darkbank (Green and Pleasant Land)
  • January — Twilight of the Fifth Sun Secrets of New Orleans)
  • February 12 — Black Devil Mountain (The Asylum and other tales)
  • February 12- 14 — The Land of Lost Dreams (H.P. Lovecraft’s Dreamlands)
  • March 3 — A Happy Family (Adventures in Arkham Country)
  • March 10 — The Lurker in the Crypt (Fatal Experiments)
  • April 26-30 – Season of the Witch (H.P. Lovecraft’s Dreamlands)
  • May — Furious Driving (Fearful Passages)
  • May 5 — Crash Dive (Fearful Passages)
  • Begins after May 23 — Dark Carnival (Curse of the Cthonians)
  • June 11 — The Rescue (Cthulhu Companion)
  • June 12- July 12 – Gate from the Past (The Asylum and other tales)
  • June – People of the Monolith (Shadows of Yog Sothoth)
  • July 28 — The Last of Joy (Minions)
  • September 23rd — The Temple of the Moon (Terror from the Stars)
  • October 1 — The Secret of Castronegro (Cthulhu Companion)
  • November — The Ferry Ride (Secrets of San Francisco)
  • November 23 — Thoth’s Dagger (Curse of the Cthonians)





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John Bagford Manuscripts

As we wander afield it can be interesting, at least to me to examine some of the minutia that can bog down research – especially in obscure fields, like the history of shoemaking.

John Bagford (1650/1-1716) was an antiquarian, author, book-dealer, bibliographer, and manuscript collector.  He may also have had his start as a shoemaker by the Great Turnstile (An alley between High Holburn and Lincoln’s Inn Fields in London).  If so he appears to have tired of that and changed professions around 1686.

One of the things he is best known for was gathering together a large number of collections of books and manuscripts.  Among those he helped to build were the collections of Robert Harley, Hans Sloan and Sir Robert Cotton; which is to say – much of the core of the British Museum library.  Unfortunately he was also the target of a lot of negative commentary, mostly due to his overall lack of education and the collections he built for himself of title-pages of books — according to legend, he was known to visit the homes of the great and the good, and if he found books whose pages he lacked, he’d remove those pages and take them with him.  Whether this is true, or slander laid against him can be debated endlessly.

He was well known to have been a good man without pretense (according to Thomas Rawlinson) and highly learned if not formally educated.

In the Harleian Manuscripts he left a short handwritten piece about shoemaking.  Curiously there is some debate as to what manuscript this is in.

In Nichols, John.  Literary anecdotes of the eighteenth century; comprizing biographical memoirs of William Bowyer, printer, F.S.A., and many of his learned friends; an incidental view of the progress and advancement of literature in this kingdom during the last century; and biographical anecdotes of a considerable number of eminent writers and ingenious artists; with a very copious index. Vol. 2 1812. Pp. 462-463 it is said that Bagford acknowledged “that he practised, or had practised, “the gentle craft,” as he calls it, in a little curious and entertaining tract on the fashions of shoes, &c. and the art of making them, which may be seen in the British Museum, Harl. MSS. 5911.”


According to the Transactions of the Bibliographical Society, v. 7, p. 158.  Harl. 5911 is “Letters by Wanley. Petition to University for leave to examine bindings and remove fragments.   Collections regarding libraries, MSS, etc. A History of Shoemaking, f. 92. Magnet.  Account of Barlow 110.

Also listed, pg. 159. “Harl. 5981. Collections for a history of shoemaking.”

Looks promising.

The Catalogue of the Harleian Manuscripts in the British Museum, v. 3, p. 309, lists

“5911.  A thin volume containing very various matters;

  1. A Letter from Mr. H. Wanley, dated Aug. 11, 1697, to some Rev* person, respecting his own Collections towards a history of the Origin and Progress of Writing.
  2. Remarks, by the same, on travels, and directions for examining foreign Libraries, with the approbation of several learned Men.
  3. Lift of Books to be enquired for in the public Library at Cambridge. By the same.
  4. Remarks on Saxon coins, by the same.
  5. A declamation, “Privata publicæ Vi æ est anteferenda” in English. In a different hand.
  6. Catalogue of Dr. Bernard’s Books and Manuscripts.
  7. Proposal by H. Wanley for collecting old external leaves of MSS. &c. followed by other matters by him.
  8. Abstract of the will of King Henry VIII.
  9. Various lists and titles of Books.
  10. Account of a perfect collection of Books and MSS. begun in 1640 by order of Charles I. This is in MS. and in print, followed by various unconnected papers, chiefly relating to books.”


“5979-5981 In reference to Printing, in MS, 3 Vol. very undigested.”


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