Blogging update

A year and three quarters ago, my wife died suddenly. I don’t mention it for attention or sympathy — it’s just a fact. Understandably that messed with me and made it difficult for me to do much of anything, even as I tried to normalize. What with one thing and another I started to come out of my funk at the beginning of 2019. I am hoping that will continue and I can get back to research. That means I will be posting again.

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Revisiting Alice Welford

So for those of you who actually read this, two years ago I did some work on the Alice Welford Photograph Album.  You can read more about that research at the following links: Here, Here, and Here.

At work we have gotten a new archival catalog system that is open to a lot more in-depth processing, and I decided to try to migrate the old digital collection for Welford we have on ContentDM. Well thatdid not go as well as I’d hoped so I am getting the  opportunity to reprocess the whole album again.

Today I discovered these two images:


Picnic near “The Queen of Spain’s Chair”. 2010-064-1-8-1



Picnic […] [Herdana], Lowe, Constable, Carpenter (missing), Welford. 2010-064-1-8-5

Welford was in Gibraltar for 1915-early 1916.  The date for these photos is Jan. 1916.  With a little bit of research I discovered that “The Queen of Spain’s Chair” is an old British term for the high ground north of Gibraltar  and the town of La Linea de la Concepción historically called “The Queen of Spain’s Chair.”

In the first image, there are two people, one with her back to the camera.  Except, if you look at the second picture (and since I did this the first time, I’ve gotten better at reading Alice’s handwriting) the actual caption should read: “Picnic – Linea. Herdman, Lowe, Constable, Carpenter (missing), Welford.”  That means that based on her attire, the woman in front looking away from the camera is E. M. Constable. (Who I still can’t prove to be Edith May Constable).

We could speculate that the missing Carpenter might be the person in the white jacked and trousers in the first image, but there is currently no evidence to support that.  I will say though  that it is likely that the Carpenter missing from the second image is possibly Carpenter.

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Life in the 1500’s/The Bad Old Days

This as been making the rounds again, so I though I’d be a little proactive in commenting on it (I’ve already been asked several times about it). It may have been originally meant as satire, but has been passed along often enough since it first appeared in April 1999 (at least that’s the earliest appearance I know of) that some people are passing along as the truth. Personally, I think there is enough fakelore out there about the Middle Ages that we don’t need to make more up.

A variation of this was posted to REC.ORG.SCA on 2 May1999 under the subject “Interesting Trivia Behind Old Sayings…” and attributed to Dawn Fry (SKA Lady Banba MacDermot, herald for the Stronghold of Lost Forest, Calontir)

The major problem is that this sort of thing feeds into the basic assumption that -we- are better than -they- were. There is an unspoken assumption that permeates our culture that people in the past were less intelligent, less capable — somehow deficient. This assumption actually parallels a similar one that we have about poor people, but that’s better looked at in another web page.

“Life in the 1500’s” (aka “The Bad Old Days” – which appears where is noted below)

— Original source is as yet unknown

[1500s]          Anne Hathaway was the wife of William Shakespeare.

[1500s]         She married at the age of 26.

The average age for women marrying in the Tudor period seems to have been about 26 (Alison Sims. The Tudor housewife)

[1500s]        This is really unusual for the time. Most people married young, like at the age of 11 or 12.

This is a fascinating assertion – *some* may have married early (early marriage was not unheard of even in the US as recently as the last century). But not “most”.Most people were too busy working, serving as apprentices, and so on to marry that much earlier than they do today. Median age of about 19.   Barbara Hanawalt. Growing up in Medieval London

[1500s]        Life was not as romantic as we may picture it.

This IS true, particularly considering the sorts of romantic crap that people see about the past. The past is mostly made up of non-romantic people, living non-romantic lives; working trying to feed their families and so on.

[1500s]        Here are some examples: Anne Hathaway’s home was a 3 bedroom house with a small parlor, which was seldom used (only for company), kitchen, and no bathroom.

[1500s]        Mother and Father shared a bedroom. Anne had a queen sized bed, but did not sleep alone. She also had 2 other sisters and they shared the bed also with 6 servant girls. (this is before she married) They didn’t sleep like we do length-wise but all laid on the bed cross-wise.

[1500s]        At least they had a bed. The other bedroom was shared by her 6 brothers and 30 field workers. They didn’t have a bed. Everyone just wrapped up in their blanket and slept on the floor. They had no indoor heating so all the extra bodies kept them warm.

[1500s]        They were also small people, the men only grew to be about 5’6″ and the women were 4’8″.

Actually, based on the extant garments, people may have been a few inches shorter than the over-nourished giants we are raising today, but nothing bizarre.

[1500s]       So in their house they had 27 people living.

Just to be picky: the numbers that have been presented are

2 Sisters
6 servant girls
6 Brothers
30 Field hands

That would be 47 people living in that three bedroom house.

[BOD]           Next time you are washing your hands and complain because the water temperature isn’t just how you like it, think about how things used to be…. Here are some facts about the 1500s:

Just because you SAY something is a fact, doesn’t mean it IS one.

[Both]           Most people got married in June because they took their yearly bath in May and still smelled pretty good by June.

Considering the number of bathhouses in the 1500s, and the fact that there was great consternation about their licentiousness, I would say that “most” people bathed more often than just once a year. Moreover, there’s a considerable difference between a bath and washing clean, so even if they weren’t going to have a “bath” regularly (the factualness of which is in itself is in doubt) they were quite capable of keeping clean. In the 19th and early 20th century in America, regular baths weren’t a frequent thing, but people were not dirty.

[Both]          However, they were starting to smell, so brides carried a bouquet of flowers to hide the body odor.

I don’t remember where the bridal custom came from, but considering the fact that after the plague it was generally believed that if you could smell something, it might be carrying a disease, a bride you could smell would be a Bad Thing. OTOH, it would be more likely the guests who would be carrying flowers to smell, not the bride. (Disease transmission was believed to be by “bad air” and foul smelling air).

[Both]           Baths consisted of a big tub filled with hot water. The man of the house had the privilege of the nice clean water, then all the other sons and men, then the women and finally the children-last of all the babies. By then the water was so dirty you could actually lose someone in it–hence the saying, “Don’t throw the baby out with the bath water.”

I believe the phrase is 19th century, and comes from this practice in the old West. I could be wrong here.

[Both]          Houses had thatched roofs — thick straw – piled high, with no wood underneath. It was the only place for animals to get warm, so all the dogs, cats and other small animals (mice, bugs) lived in the roof.

[Both]          When it rained it became slippery and sometimes the animals would slip and fall off the roof-hence the saying “It’s raining cats and dogs.”

Ok, I’ll grant you that it’s possible that a thatched roof might have vermin living in them, but you’ll notice the phrase isn’t raining rats and bugs. But the term is from the 17th century, and the origin is debated (possibly derived from the German “katzenjammer”) – but this aint’ it.

[Both]          There was nothing to stop things from falling into the house. This posed a real problem in the bedroom where bugs and other droppings could really mess up your nice clean bed. Hence, a bed with big posts and a sheet hung over the top afforded some protection. That’s how canopy beds came into existence.

If you only bathe once a year, I really doubt some bugs falling from the roof would be that big a deal. You’ve already GOT bugs in your bed. If memory serves, the four poster beds with canopies derive from the lack of heating. Also, since it was the rich who could afford 4 poster beds, they also had ceilings.

[Both]          The floor was dirt. Only the wealthy had something other than dirt, hence the saying “dirt poor.”

“Dirt Poor” is a 19th/20th century Americanism and has nothing to do with 16th century British.

[Both]          The wealthy had slate floors that would get slippery in the winter when wet, so they spread thresh (straw) on the floor to help keep their footing. As the winter wore on, they kept adding more thresh until when you opened the door it would all start slipping outside. A piece of wood was placed in the entranceway — hence, a “thresh hold.”

Look up the etymology of the word “threshold.” It relates to “thresh”,
“to beat the stems or husks to separate something”. The threshold was
something that separated something or demarkated something (as in “a
pain threshold”). Therefore, the threshold was what separated the inside
from the outside.

[Both]          In those old days, they cooked in the kitchen with a big kettle that always hung over the fire. Every day they lit the fire and added things to the pot.

This is more or less the origin of a lot of “poor people” stews. Your point being? That because they were poor and had to stretch things that they were somehow stupid or icky?

[Both]         They ate mostly vegetables and did not get much meat.

[Both]         They would eat the stew for dinner, leaving leftovers in the pot to get cold overnight and then start over the next day.

[Both]          Sometimes the stew had food in it that had been there for quite a while-hence the rhyme, “peas porridge hot, peas porridge cold, peas porridge in the pot nine days old.”

[Both]          Sometimes they could obtain pork, which made them feel quite special. When visitors came over, they would hang up their bacon to show off. It was a sign of wealth that a man “could bring home the bacon.”

There are some differences of opinion here, but pretty much the experts found all say that this is bogus (I really like the greased pig explanation, although some folks assert it’s because married people would get a gift of bacon. Even so, the OED doesn’t note its use before 1924 in English – as a phrase in PG Wodehouse.

[Both]          They would cut off a little to share with guests and would all sit around and “chew the fat.”

“Chew the fat” means to talk, period; not to eat. It comes from the
excessive jaw action required to chew rubber, er, fat… hence working
the jaw a lot (i.e., talking) is “chewing the fat.”

[Both]          Those with money had plates made of pewter.

Actually, those with money used plates made from really expensive imported pottery.

[Both]          Food with a high acid content caused some of the lead to leach onto the food, causing lead poisoning and death.

This might have been true if the lead were corroded or with if the food was really acidic If lead were really that risky, it wouldn’t have been that popular with plumbers for pipes for centuries.

Note, the Romans didn’t all go insane from lead poisoning. Chemical evidence from the bones of dead Romans show higher levels of lead than, say the Middle Ages, which – even with all the lead used were really low, but considerably less than we have today)

We have been brainwashed to think that all lead must be bad, without realizing that we breathe in more lead from lead that’s been burned than people in the Middle Ages and Ancient Rome ever had to deal with. This was/is even more true where lead has been added to gasoline to stop knocking of a car’s engine.

[Both]          This happened most often with tomatoes, so for the next 400 years or so, tomatoes were considered poisonous.

So, who ate them before that? The Romans? (If so, then why didn’t they stop eating them, since they used a lot more lead in their cooking). Tomatoes were thought poisonous because they are members of the nightshade family.

[Both]          Most people did not have pewter plates, but had trenchers, a piece of wood with the middle scooped out like a bowl. Often trenchers were made from stale bread, which was so old and hard that they could be used for quite some time. Trenchers were never washed and a lot of times worms and mold got into the wood and old bread. After eating off wormy, moldy trenchers, one would get “trench mouth.”

Trench Mouth is from WWI; The Trenches; and is a result of a bacterium.

[Both]          Bread was divided according to status. Workers got the burnt bottom of the loaf, the family got the middle, and guests got the top, or “upper crust.”

More or less; the term “upper crust” was first used to refer to society
folk in 1836, however.

[Both]          Lead cups were used to drink ale or whiskey.

Really? I thought lead dining ware went away after Rome fell. You are confusing lead with pewter, and you discuss that above this.

[Both]          The combination would sometimes knock them out for a couple of days.

Lead is not an anesthetic. It gradually build up in your bones – if you are actually getting any lead from the pewter, which is not terribly likely the result is not instantaneous, but as result of lead build up in the organs.

[Both]          Someone walking along the road would take them for dead and prepare them for burial. They were laid out on the kitchen table for a couple of days and the family would gather around and eat and drink and wait and see if they would wake up–hence the custom of holding a “wake.”

It is true that the purpose of the wake may have been to see if the poor bugger was really dead, but I fail to see why ale or whiskey from lead cups would knock someone out for a “couple of days”.

Really, a wake is a vigil, where one sits awake the night before an event. A wake for the dead is sitting up with the corpse before it’s buried, honoring the dead and remembering .. From that people decided to throw a party.

[Both]          England is old and small and the local folks started running out of places to bury people.

[Both]          So they would dig up coffins and would take the bones to a “bone-house” and reuse the grave.

[Both]          When reopening these coffins, 1 out of 25 coffins were found to have scratch marks on the inside and they realized they had been burying people alive.

[Both]          So they thought they would tie a string on the wrist of the corpse, lead it through the coffin and up through the ground and tie it to a bell. Someone would have to sit out in the graveyard all night (the “graveyard shift”) to listen for the bell; thus, someone could be “saved by the bell” or was considered a “dead ringer.

This is Victorian, not 1500s.The fear of burial while still alive was a big thing in the mid-1800s.

A ringer is someone who looks like another person, or more specifically, a horse that looks like another horse and may be swapped for them. A “Dead Ringer” is someone who really looks like someone else.

Saved by the bell is, of course, a modern boxing term; a fighter about
to go down is not “out” if the bell rings first.

“Graveyard shift” may have become popularized during WWII, but the term goes back as far as 1907, and probably derived from the late 19th century sailor’s term “Graveyard Watch” (12-4 am, possibly because so many disasters occurred during that time).

And that’s the truth… (and whoever said that history was boring)


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Canon Episcopi

The Canon, or Capitulatum Episcopi was first attributed to the Council of in Ancyra (314 ce) by Regino of Prum, Abbot of Treves about 906, and was, until the 13th century, the official and accepted Doctrine of the Church. The document (translated below) essentially states that the acts of Witches were all illusions or fantasies of dreams. Therefore, belief in the actuality of witchcraft is pagan and heretical.

“Bishops and their officials must labor with all their strength to uproot thoroughly from their parishes the pernicious art of sorcery and malefice invented by the devil, and if they find a man or woman follower of this wickedness to eject them foully disgraced from the parishes. For the Apostle says, “A man that is a heretic after the first and second admonition avoid.” Those are held captive by the Devil who, leaving their creator, seek the aid of the Devil. And so Holy Church must be cleansed of this pest. “It is also not to be omitted that some unconstrained women, perverted by Satan, seduced by illusions and phantasms of demons, believe and openly profess that, in the dead of night, they ride upon certain beasts with the pagan goddess Diana, with a countless horde of women, and in the silence of the dead of the night to fly over vast tracts of country, and to obey her commands as their mistress, and to be summoned to her service on other nights. “But it were well if they alone perished in their infidelity and did not draw so many others into the pit of their faithlessness. For an innumberable multitude, deceived by this false opinion, believe this to be true and, so believing, wander from the right faith and relapse into pagan errors when they think that there is any divinity or power except the one God. “Wherefore the priests throughout their churches should preach with all insistence to the people that they may know this to be in every way false, and that such phantasms are sent by the devil who deludes them in dreams. Thus Satan himself, who transforms himself  into an angel of light, when he has captured the mind of a miserable woman and has subjected her to himself by infidelity and incredulity, immediately changes himself into the likeness of different personages and deluding the mind which he holds captive and exhibiting things, both joyful and sorrowful, and persons, both known and unknown, and leads her faithless mind through devious ways. And while the spirit alone endures this, she thinks these things happen not in the spirit but in the body.  “Who is there that is not led out of himself in dreams and nocturnal visions, and sees much sleeping that he had never seen waking? “Who is so stupid and foolish as to think that all these things that are done in the spirit are done in the body, when the Prophet Ezekiel saw visions of God in spirit and not in body, and the Apostle John saw and heard the mysteries of the Apocalypse in spirit and not in body, as he himself says “I was rapt in Spirit”.  And Paul does not dare to say that he was rapt in his body. “It is therefore to be publically proclaimed to all that whoever believes in such things, or similar things, loses the Faith, and he who has not the right faith of God is not of God, but of him in whom he believes, that is the devil. For of our Lord it is written, “All things were made by Him.” Whoever therefore believes that anything can be made, or that any creature can be changed to better or worse, or transformed into another species or likeness, except by God Himself who made everything and through whom all things were made, is beyond a doubt an infidel.”

Text from Lea, Henry C. Materials Toward a History of Witchcraft. University of Pennsylvania Press, 1939.

This is in diametric opposition to the later view that Disbelief in Witchcraft was heretical.

It is possible to document that of ALL the trials I have studied, only one set, in 1390 Milan, involved women tried for practicing rites led by the pagan Goddess Diana. The bulk of the trials between 1400 and 1700 involved diabolism, Luciferianism, and acts relating to the Devil. Before 1400, the majority of trials (and there weren’t THAT many) were focused on the use of magics to harm others, to practice treasonous divination and spells against a monarch.

It is my contention that most of the Witchcraft trials, from which we get terms like “Transvection” (Witch’s flight), Ligature (A form of “Malefica” (or working of evil magic)), Sabats and Esbats (which are used to refer to the diabolic orgies practiced by “Gothic”  Witches) are based on the persecution of  nonPagans.

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Cattle in the Middle Ages


Just don’t ask…

About Cattle

Domesticated cattle (B. Taurus).
Height of 150 cm (59″), and weigh 410-910 kg (900-2,000 lbs.). Eat 70 kg (155 lbs) of green grass a day Eat 1.4 kg (3 lbs) of silage or .45 kg (1 lb) of hay for every 100 lbs of body weight. Lactating cows require an additional .45 kg (1 lb) of grain or feed for every 3 lbs of milk it produces
[2.7-4.4 gallons per day. Milk weighs 3.9 kg (8.6 lbs) per gallon].

Cattle were raised principally in history for either milk production or for muscle. Beef and leather are byproducts of an animal that has either died or is somehow otherwise surplus.

“Just how big were cattle in the Middle Ages anyway?”

To determine size, we look at two standards. The height to the top of the shoulder (aka the whithers), and/or the weight. This information will be given in the following manner: [female cm (in.); kg (lbs)/male cm (in.); kg (lbs)]

  • Postglacial Aurochs (Bos Primigenius)
    [147 cm (57.9″)/157 cm (61.8″) or 150 cm/180 cm]
  • Neolithic Domestic (c2600 BCE)
    [125 cm (49″)]
  • Late Neolithic, Beaker, and Early Bronze Age (c1900 BCE)
    [122 cm (48″)]
  • Middle Bronze Age (1000 BCE)
    [109 cm (43″)]
  • Iron Age (300 BCE)
    [107 cm (42″)]
  • Romano-British (1st -4th C)
    [112 cm (44″)]
  • Anglo-Saxon & Scandinavian (7th-10th C)
    [115 cm (45.3″) or 104.6-121.4 cm (40.9″-47.8″)]
  • Saxo-Norman and High Medieval (11th-13th C)
    [110 cm (43.3″) or 100-130 cm (39.4-51.2″)]
  • Later Medieval (14th-15th C)
    [109 cm (42.9″)]
  • Tudor (late 15th-16th C)
    [120 cm (47.2″)]
  • 18th C
    [138 cm (54.3″)]
  • Modern English Longhorn
    [130-140 cm (51″-55″)/150 cm (59″)]
  • Modern Dexter
    [91.4-106.7 cm (36″-42″)/96.5-111.76 cm (38″-44″)]
  • Greenlander (extinct)
    [100-110 cm (39.4″-43.3″)]

Therefore, in Britain, at least, cattle in the Middle Ages were smaller than the “average” modern cattle (I *think* 110 cm: 150 cm is about 73% and about 3.6″). On the other hand, the different breeds can give you a different idea of what an average Bovine should look like.

“What Breeds existed in the Middle Ages, and would that have an effect on the statistics?”

Most breeds of cattle can not be dated accurately before the 1700s, so it may be difficult to determine what breeds existed then. Let’s look at some breeds assumed to have existed before the 17th century.

  • Alderney
    Channel Islands – Extinct.
  • “Alpine”/Swiss Brown
    Brown Cow from the Lower Alps in Switzerland and Germany. May stretch back to one of the oldest cattle breeds. Large. Work/Milk.
    [130 cm (51″); 636 kg (1,400 lbs)/145 cm (57”); 909 kg (2000 lbs)]
  • Aurochs (Bos Primigenius, auerochse, ur, boeuf sauvage, oeros, oerrund)
    Extinct, with the last being killed in a Polish forest in 1627. There are modern “bred back” recreations. A second shorthorned species was also described (B. Longifrons or Brachyceros) from which many modern shorthorned breeds are thought to descend, although some people think that this shorthorned breed may be just the female Aurochs.
    [147 cm (57.9″)/157 cm (61.8″) or 150 cm/180 cm] (n.b. The modern humped cattle are alleged to derive from Bos Indicus or B. Namadicus, now extinct)
  • British (“Park”) White (or White Park, Ancient White Park, White Forest, White Horned, Wild White)
    England. Medium (or Small) and Shaggy. Longhorns and polled varieties exist. White fur with black points. The Chillingham Park herd allegedly has not had any interbreeding with other herds since 1220/50. Genetically related to the Galloway and Highland.
    [636 kg (1,400 lbs)/954.4 kg (2,100 lbs)] depending on your sources. Others place the Chillingham herd at
    [386.4 kg (850 lbs)/454.5 kg (1000 lbs)] Other herds are at Cadzow, Chartley, Vaynol. (NOTE: Do not confuse with the British White (aka, the “Polled Park White”), which is an entirely different Breed, although may be decended from the Park White).
  • Canadienne
    France, related to the Normande, Jersey, and Alderney cattle, these milk producers were imported in 1541 to Quebec by Cartier. Milk.
    [122 cm (48″); 550 kg (1,210 lbs)/137 cm (54″); 813 kg (1,790 lbs)]
  • “Celtic” Black
    Britain (from which the Welsh Black, the Galloway, the Highland, and the Angus may have derived).
    [110 cm/120 cm]
  • Corriente
    Spain, imported to the New World by the Spaniards in the 15th and 16th centuries, their descendants remain in Northern Mexico, and are the also ancestral to the Texas Longhorn
    [99 cm (39″); 363 kg (800 lbs)/99 cm (39″); 454.5 kg (1000 lbs)]
  • Galloway
    Scotland (SW Islands) – May be the southern Scots polled cattle referred to since the 11th Century, they may only be 18th Century when the first solid records of them reach back to.
    [122 cm (48″); 575 kg (1,265 lbs)/137 cm (54″); 813 kg (1,790 lbs)]
  • Greenland
    Extinct. Known only from archarological remains. Decended from Norwegian cattle (see “Norsecattle”). Milk
    [Size based on bones: 100-110 cm]
  • Guernsey
    Channel Islands – The Guernsey began c1000 when monks imported cattle from France.
  • Highland
    Scotland (NW Islands) – Medium. Although cattle similar to this have been mentioned in records since the 12th Century, and some scholars place them back to the Iron Age, they may only be 17th Century when the first solid records of them reach back to.
    [107 cm (42″); 363.6-454.5 kg (800-1000 lbs)/122 cm (48″); 454.5-590.9 kg (1000-1300 lbs)]
  • Icelandic
    Decended from Norwegian cattle (see Norsecattle”). Small. Milk (long body/short legs)
    [340.9-500 kg (750-1100 lbs)/454.5-772.7 kg (1000-1700 lbs)]
  • Longhorn
    England (uplands). Large.
    [130-140 cm (51″-55″); 500-600 kg (1000-1320 lbs)/150 cm (59″); 1000 kg (2200 lbs)]
  • Maol
    Ireland. Extinct? “Hornless” Medium size? Work.
    [636kg (1400 lbs)/909 kg (2000 lbs)]
  • Marchigiana
    Italy (Near Rome) Large. Work. Almost pure “Italian Podolian”, or Russian steppes cattle, brought to Italy in the 5th Century. May be ancestral to the Chianina.
    [590.9-691.8 kg (1300-1500 lbs)/909 kg (2000 lbs)]
  • “Viking Cow”/Norsecattle (North Finncattle/Mountain cattle (Fjallko)/Blacksided Trondor) – Finland, Sweden, Norway. (Long body/short legs) Small. Milk. Seems to be related (if not ancestral) to a number of other cattle types in Europe.
    • Norwegeian Blacksided Trondor
      [318-409 kg (700-900 lbs)/636 -772.7 kg (1400-1700 lbs).
    • Swedish Mountain cattle
      [318-409 kg (700-900 lbs)/454.5-613.6 kg (1000-1350 lbs)
  • Romagnola
    Italy (Lower Po) Very Large. Work. Almost pure “Italian Podolian”, or Russian steppes cattle.
    [656-795.5 kg (1450-1750 lbs)/1156 kg (2500 lbs)]
  • Shorthorn
    England (NE lowlands)
    [12 cm (48″); 590.9-636 kg (1300-1400 lbs)/137 cm (54″); 909 kg (2000 lbs)] Originate from the shorthorned:

    • Holderness
    • Teeswater (also partially ancestral to the Ayrshire).

Other English Shorthorned Cattle:

  • Devon
    England. An ancient Red shorthorned breed typical of those found all over southern England. May be descended from B. Longifrons. Work.
    [122 cm (48″); 431.8-590.9 kg (950-1,300 lbs)/137 cm (54 cm); 772.7-1000 kg (1700-2200 lbs)
  • Hereford
    England. An ancient Red shorthorned breed typical of those found all over southern England.
  • Lincoln Red
    Bred from the local Shorthorned Red stock with the “Norsecattle” in the 8th-10th centuries.
  • Norfolk
    A small, hardy, beefy Red cow.
  • Suffolk
    A large dun colored dairy cow (possibly decended from a Galloway related breed, crossed with the
  • Sussex
    England. An ancient Red shorthorned breed typical of those found all over southern England. Reported as a draft ox as far back as 1066. Work.
    [137 cm (54″); 590.9 kg (1,300 lbs)/145 cm (57 cm); 1000 kg (2200 lbs)]
  • Welsh Black (Gwartheg Duon Cymneig)
    Wales. Now Medium sized. Historically, the Northern black was considerably smaller. May only be as old as the 17th Century.
    [122 cm (48″); 454.5 kg (1000 lbs)/137 cm (54″); 863.6 kg (1900 lbs)]

    • Anglesy
      Small. Long, beefy body.
    • Pembroken
      Medium. Milk.
  • Wisent/Bison
    Bulgaria, Romania
    [170-180 cm (66.9″-70.9″); 726-910 kg (1,600-2,000 lbs)]


  • Whitefaced redbodied
  • Red-and-white
  • Danish Red
    Denmark. Descended from the old German Angln, local island cattle, and the Bally.
  • Black and white
  • Black and white
    N. Netherlands. These pre-17th Century proto-Holsteins are known to exist from records.
  • Belted black and white
    Netherlands. The pre-17th Century cattle appear in early paintings.
  • Fromont du Leon
    France. ???
  • Norman Brindle
    France. ???
  • Golden, Long legged cattle from the valleys
  • Red-to-Straw colored Mountain cattle

“Are there any other modern breeds that might have remained unchanged from the Middle Ages?”

The following breeds appear or claim to be pre-17th century “landraces”.

  • Alentejana
    Portugal. Large. Work
    [545.5 kg (1200 lbs)/818.2 kg (1800 lbs)]
  • Brittainy Black Spotted
    France. Small. Once work, now milk.
    [363.6-409.1 kg (800-900 lbs)/545.5-681.8 (1200-1500 lbs)
  • Camargue
    France (Rhone delta) *Small* Sport and Festival.
    [295.5 -341 kg (800-900 lbs)/545.5-681.8 kg (1200-1500 lbs)]
  • Chianina
    Italy (central) Alleged to have existed since Roman times, although this is debateable. EXCEPTIONALLY LARGE Work
    [818.2 kg (1800lbs)/upto 1818.2 kg (4000 lbs)].
  • Dexter
    Ireland (Kerry) *Very Small* May only be 17th Century, or may be from the oldest of breeds
    [91.4 cm-106.7 cm (36″-42″); 341 kg (750 lbs)/96.5 cm-111.76 cm (38″-44″); under 454.5 kg (1,000 lbs)].
  • Flamande
    France. Work/Milk.
    [590.0-681.8 kg (1300-1500 lbs)/upto 1136.4 kg (2500 lbs)]
  • Fresian
    Netherlands – *probably* post-1700, descended from Northern Jutland Black-and-White cattle.
    [636-681.8 kg/1400-1500 lbs)/1045.5 kg (2300 lbs)]
  • Grauvia (Grigia Alpina)
    Austria, Italy (“Grey cattle” or “Grey Mountain Cattle”) Tyrolian. Some claim to be tracable back to the Romans. Medium to Large. Milk.
    [454.5-545.5 kg (1000-1200
  • lbs)/681.8-818.2 kg (1500-1800 lbs)]
  • Grey Steppe
    Romania, Russia?. “Medium Sized”
    [454.5 kg (1000 lbs)/636.4-681.8 kg (1400-1500 lbs)]
  • Hawaiian Wild Cattle
    Hawaii – Abandoned by Cook?
    [318.2 kg (700)/545.5 lg (1200 lbs)]
  • Herens (Eringer)
    Switzerland. Work/Sport/Milk.
    [119 cm (46.9″); 450-500 kg (990-1100 lbs)/122 cm (48″); 600-650 kg (1320-1430 kgs)]
  • Iskur
    Bulgaria. “Medium Sized” Bred from Grey Steppe Cattle, with some northern breed “in the remote past”. Work (some milk).
    [454.5 kg (1000 lbs)/636.4-681.8 kg (1400-1500 lbs)]
  • Kerry
    Ireland “Medium” size. Milk. (long body/short legs) May only be 17th Century
    [354.5-454.5 kg (780-1000 lbs)]
  • Longhorned
    [1430- kg (650-750 lbs)/454.5 kg (upto 1000 lbs)]
  • Mertolenga
    Portugal. Large. Work
    [545.5 kg (1200 lbs)/818.2 kg (1800 lbs)]
  • Modenese
    Italy (Lower Po) Very Large. Work.
    [659.1-759.5 kg (1450-1750 lbs)/1136.4 kg (2500 lbs)]
  • Modicana
    Italy (Sicily) Introduced by Normans after a plague wiped out the Sicilian cattle. Medium size. Work/Milk.
    [409.1-590.9 kg (900-1300 lbs)/454.5-727.3 kg (1000-1600 lbs)]
  • Murciana
    Spain. Work.
    [545.5 kg (1200 lbs)/818 kg (1800 lbs)]
  • Native Cattle
    Greece. A Grey Steppe derivative. Very small.
    [204.5-272.7 kg (450-600 lbs)/???]
  • Piedmontese
    Italy. Work/Milk. Medium-Large.
    [636 kg (1400 lbs)/909 kg (2000 lbs)]
  • Pirenaica
    Spain (Pyrennes). Large. Work/Milk.
    [ ???/upto 909 kg (2000 lbs)]
  • Prete
    Italy (Sicily). Small. Some work.
    [318-364 kg (700-800 lbs)/ 454.5 kg (1000 lbs)]
  • Rodopska
    Bulgaria. *Small*. Mountain cattle from the south. Look like goats. Work (some milk)
    [1760 kg (800 lbs)/1980 kg (900 lbs)]
  • Norwegian Red
    Norway –
    [122 cm (48″); 600 kg (1,320 lbs)/137 cm (54″); 1100 kg (2,420 lbs)] An amaglamation of several old local breeds, including:

    • Dole
    • Hedmark
    • Hordaland
    • Jarlsberg
    • Lyngdal
    • More
    • Ramsdal
    • Red Tronheim
    • South Norwegian
    • Vestland Fjord
    • Vestland Red Polled
    • West Norwegian
  • Polish Red
    Poland – Dark Red. Medium to Large. Resembles the German red. Milk.
    [;400-500 kg (880-1100 lbs)/500-550 kg (1100-1250 lbs)]
  • Tarentaise
    France Alpine. Medium. First work, now milk.
    [590.9 kg (1300 lbs)/upto 1090.9 kg (2400 lbs)]
  • Telemark
    Norway – An amaglamation of several old local breeds. Small. Milk
    [400-500 kg (880-1100 lbs)]
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The Roman Army

Some Notes:

Phase I (c753 BCE – c510 BCE) The Monarchy

The first army of Rome was a simple assemblage of warriors gathered together under the Latin tribal “banner”.  As far as I can find out, they didn’t wear much armor, if any, and may have used a Greek style “leaf shaped” sword in addition to a spear, but that’s about it.

Phase II (c510 BCE – c350BCE) The Phalanx

The army was actually organized, I believe, by Servius Tullius, and was a combined force of Etruscans, Romans, and Latins, and were classified into “Ranks” by the level of their wealth.  There were 5 ranks, from the first to the fifth, and then the Cavalry.  Each “Century” contained 100 men.

Cavalry  (Nobles)[a Maximum of 18 Centuries possible]

First Rank (Heavy Infantry)(Upper Middle Class)[78 Centuries total; field army would have 39]

Armed in Hoplite fashion with a Bronze Helmet, Cuirass, and Greaves; a Long spear, a Greek Style Sword for backup; and an “Argive” style shield (Round and faced either in bronze or leather)

Military Engineers (Upper Middle Class) [2 Centuries; field army would have 1]

When armored, armored as above.

Second Rank (Medium Infantry)(Middle Class)[20 Centuries; field army would have 10]

Armed in hoplite fashion with a Bronze Helmet and Greaves; leather or linen Cuirass; Spear; Sword; and a oval “Scutum”.

Third Rank (Light Infantry)(Upper Lower Class)[20 Centuries; field army would have 10]

Bronze helmet; Linen Cuirass; Spear; Sword; Scutum.

Fourth Rank (Light Infantry)(Lower Class)[20 Centuries; field army would have 10]

Spear; light javelin; Scutum

Fifth Rank (Irregular troops)(Pond Scum)[30 Centuries; field army would have 15]


Phase III (c350 BCE – c100 BCE) The Manipal

After the Roman got the stuffing kicked out of them by the Gauls in the 4th Century BCE and Rome was sacked, the Dictator Camillus reorganized the army into a form that was a bit more maneuverable than the standard phalanx, and laid the groundwork for the Roman army as we think of it, based on a Legion (or “levy”) of about 5000 men.  This was further divided into three battle lines or “Ranks” led by a front rank of lighter troops.  Each rank was made up of Maniples, each consisting of 2 centuries.  In battle these Ranks would be separate waves 80 meters apart.

1st Rank “Velites” (Light Infantry)(Lower Class)[10 maniples of 2 30 man centuries]

Greek Sword or Kopis (aka Spanish Falx); Pilum (Javelin); small shield (round, wood or wicker covered in hide); bronze
helmet (perhaps covered in fur)
After the enemy was closed upon, the Velites would stop, the other ranks would move ahead of them, and the Velites would join up with the Tirari.

2nd Rank “Hastati” (Heavy Infantry)[10 maniples of 2 60 man centuries)

Bronze Helm; bronze breast plate (not large), Scutum, Pilum (light and heavy).  After c200 BCE, they might wear mail* and/or carry the Gladius “Hispanicus” and/or wear the “Celtic/Itallic” helmet.   (*Mail was developed by the Celts and was originally (according to an example found at Kirkburn (c300 BCE)) was 10 gauge BUTTED mail.)

3rd Rank “Princeps” (Heavy Infantry)[10 Maniples of 2 60 man centuries]

Bronze Helm; bronze breast plate (not large), Scutum, Pilum (light and heavy).  After c200 BCE, they might wear mail* and/or carry the Gladius “Hispanicus” and/or wear the “Celtic/Itallic” helmet.

4th Rank “Triari” (Light Infantry)[10 maniples of 2 30 man centuries]

Lightly armored spear men.

5th Rank “Rorari” and “Accensi”

Poorly equipped “reserves” (These disappeared from the army as a concept fairly early on).

There were also “Squadrons” of cavalry of 30 men each trained to perform close order drills.  Also, a detachment of Engineers.

Phase IV (c100 BCE – c25 BCE) Post-Marius’ Reforms

The General Marius restructured the Roman Army based on lessons learned in the Punic Wars.  He first did away with the social basis of the army; disposed of the Velites and the Triari; and standardized the weapons of the troops (Pilums and Gladius).  The army was then restructured into “Cohorts” made up of 6 centuries (essentially a legion marching in formation at you would
be 10 waves of men, each 6 men deep and 100 men wide.

Attached to the Legion were Cavalry units (still mostly noble) and foreign auxiliaries (mostly slingers and bowmen).  Also, each legion maintained a corps of Engineers.

Phase V (c25 BCE – 236) The Imperial Legion.

Augustus changed very little of the army, but his was the first government to actually PAY his troops, and to maintain permanent units of auxiliaries.  He reduced the number of legions from 60-288, as well as lowering the number of men in each “Century” to 80.

The regular legionaries wore, as a rule, the famous “Lorica Segmentata”, which was inexpensive to make and easy to repair in the field.  However, it would not be uncommon to find Mail and Scale armor in the same unit.

Phase VI (236-c290) The Centralized Army

The emperor Gallienus tried to centralize the army, leaving the borders under the protection of the Limtanei “Border Guards” who were to merely slow down an invading force long enough for the Main Body to arrive.

At this point the troops were equipped with Mail, a pilum, a round shield and a Spatha (A form of longsword).  The Imperial Itallic Helm began to be replaced by a Spangenhelm (“helm of plates”) pattern that in many ways resembles the helm found at Sutton Hoo.

Phase VII (c290-c323)  Diocletian’s reforms; The Horse Soldiers

Under Diocletian, the army remained much the same, but training slackened as more attention was paid to the Cavalry.  Also Conscription was begun for what had been for a thousand years an all-volunteer army.

The cavalry was divided into 4 “armies” each sent into a portion of the empire for “quick reaction: attacks.  Each army had lightly armored lancers (Chain shirt, large round shield), lightly armored archers and heavily armored Cataphractos.

There is a debate among historians regarding the Roman Cavalry and the so-called “Celtic” or “Roman saddle” (a frame with 4 “horns” one at each corner).  One school of thought says that the “4 Prong” Roman saddle  is just a pack saddle, and that the Roman cavalry was ineffective since it had no stirrups on its otherwise normal rigid saddles.  The other school of though
says that by experimentation they have proven that the four prong saddle diminishes the need for stirrups for cavalry actions.  Take your pick (me, I lean on the side of the experimenters).

Phase VIII (323-400)

The army was further reduced in 323 when the legion was redefined from 5000 to 1000 men.  They gave up the Pilum.

The Cavalry was organized into “Palatinae” (units of 500 troops, mostly German).  Fewer Romans were to be found in the army.

Phase IX (400- )

After 400, the legion still existed as a concept, but not really as an effective unit.  Moreover, the “Cavalry” had devolved into what were essentially German war-bands, and anyone with a 1000 troops in one place had an “army”.

The Celts

These were essentially “Light Infantry” units locked into the “cowboy mentality” of every man for his own personal honor, and screw the team.  Armor consisted of generally wool tunics and trews, and only the chieftains in chain and bronze helms.. They used large round shields, small bucklers;  “long swords”; slings; bows; and spears.

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Weight measurement in the Early Middle Ages Britain

I was asked recently about units of weight were used in Anglo Saxon and Danish Britain, and in particular in York, so I thought I’d give it a shot.  I have already done a more general page on weights and measurements in the Middle Ages here.  The following are rough.

The problem is that there are so many different variations of what are considered “correct”, going from source to source, it’s hard to determine what should be the actual weights, trying to work downword.  For example, a Norse “Mark” is given as 203 grams, 226.8 grams

OTOH, I noticed that in general, silver pennies from the period of Pepin the Short, through Offa and Coenwulf and even William of Normandy seem to be about 1.3 grams (although there is some variation with at least one from 1066 weighing in at more than 1.4 grams). This would suggest that:

1 Grain (Barleycorn) = = = = = = 0.054 Grams
24 Grains = 1 Pennyweight = = = = = 1.3 Grams
384 Grains = 16 Pennyweight = 1 Ore = 1 Ounce = = = 20.8 Grams
2304 Grains = 128 Pennyweight 8 Ora 8 Ounces = 1 Mark = = 166.4 Grams
5760 Grains = 240 Pennyweight = 15 Ora = 12 Ounce = 1.5 Marks = 1 Pound = 312 Grams



Comparing this to measures found at  archaeological sites (which may not be perfectly accurate because of chemical alterations during burial, not to mention coming from unsubstantiated websites)


  • 284 Grams = 218.46 Pennyweight or 13.6 Ora.

  • 226 Grams = 173.85 Pennyweight, 1 Mark or 10.865 Ora.

  • 70.5 Grams = 54.23 Pennyweight, or  3.39 Ora.


  • 819 Grams =  630 Pennyweight, or 39.38 Ora.

  • 57.25 Grams =  44.04 Pennyweight, or 2.75  Ora.

  • 32.65 Grams = 25.12 Pennyweight, or  1.57 Ora.

  • 32.4 Grams =  24.92 Pennyweight, or  1.56 Ora.

  • 24.38 Grams = 18.75 Pennyweight, or  1.17 Ora.

Riazan, near Moscow (11th century)

  • 144.3 Grams = 111 Pennyweight, or 6.94  Ora.

  • 56.167 Grams = 43.21 Pennyweight, or  2.7 Ora.

  • 39.808 Grams = 30.62 Pennyweight, or  1.91 Ora.

  • 39.429 Grams = 30.33 Pennyweight, or  1.9 Ora.

  • 31.177 Grams = 23.98 Pennyweight, or  1.5 Ora.

Which looks like the weights were likely in some version of an Ora, say at increments of 1, 1.5, 2, 3, etc.

Is this perfectly right?  I have no idea.

Other things to muddy the issue:

A Danish Pund, established in 1683 and used until 1607 was 499.75 grams

In Norway, before 1683, the Pund was 466.65 grams, the Merke was 218.7 grams, the ort was .9735 grams.

In Sweden there were a variety of local measures before the country standardized things in 1665, which lasted more or less until 1855, and the Metric system being adopted in 1889.  The ort was 4.2508 gram The Mark was 212.5 grams, although in the Viking era it may have been as little as 203 grams.  The Skalpund was 423 grams

Anglo-Saxon measurement (More or less, for comparison)

1 Grain (Barleycorn) = = = = = = .0648 Grams
24 Grains = 1 Pennyweight = = = = = 1.552 Grams
288 = 12 Pennyweight = 1 Shilling = = = = 18.66 Grams
384 = 16 Pennyweight = = 1 Ore = = = 24.88 Grams
480 Grains = 20 Pennyweight = = = 1 Ounce = = 31.104 Grams
5760 Grains = 240 Pennyweight = 20 Shillings = 15 Ora = 12 Ounce = 1 Pound = 373.25 Grams


  • Cribb, Joe, Barrie Cook, and Ian Carradice. The Coin Atlas the World of Coinage from Its Origins to the Present Day. New York: Facts on File, 1990.
  • Davies, Glyn, and Bank Julian Hodge. A History of Money: From Ancient Times to the Present Day. 3rd, with revisions. ed. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2002.
  • Hobson, Burton, and Robert Obojski. Illustrated Encyclopedia of World Coins. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1970.
  • Jones, Stacy V. Weights and Measures: An Informal Guide. Washington, D.C.: Public Affairs Press, 1963.
  • Junge, Ewald. World Coin Encyclopedia. 1st U.S. ed. New York: William Morrow and Company, 1984.
  • Oxford University Press. The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd / prepared by J.A. Simpson and E.S.C. Weiner. ed., ed. J. A. Simpson and E. S. C. Weiner. Oxford New York: Clarendon Press; Oxford University Press, 1989.
  • Woolhouse, Wesley Stoker Barker. Historical, Measures, Weights, Calendars & Moneys of All Nations and an Analysis of the Christian, Hebrew and Muhammadan Calendars (with Tables up to 2000 A.D.). Chicago: Ares Publishers, 1979.
  • Zupko, Ronald Edward. A Dictionary of English Weights and Measures: From Anglo-Saxon Times to the Nineteenth Century. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1968.
  • Zupko, Ronald Edward. French Weights and Measures before the Revolution a Dictionary of Provincial and Local Units. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1978.
  • Zupko, Ronald Edward. Italian Weights and Measures from the Middle Ages to the Nineteenth Century Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society, 145. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1981.
  • Zupko, Ronald Edward. A Dictionary of Weights and Measures for the British Isles the Middle Ages to the Twentieth Century Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society, 168. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1985.
  • Zupko, Ronald Edward. Revolution in Measurement Western European Weights and Measures since the Age of Science Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society, 186. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1990.
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Coin Hoards

The practical definition of a hoard or trove is two or more coins brought together for a specific purpose. There are essentially four sorts of “Hoards” or “Troves”:

Hidden during an emergency, usually with the intent of later retrieval. These are most often of random denominations, and may include other things, like gems, jewelry, etc.

Hidden because someone is saving money or things. These often tend to be a limited number of denominations. Often dominated by coins of high quality and value. They are often the least worn and heaviest of their denomination. Strangely, they are often in odd containers that may be difficult to extract the money from. Modern examples include saving silver dollars, saving to buy something, setting aside your pennies in a jar, a piggy bank, etc. Includes what are known as “Mercantile Hoards” and “Boullion Hoards”.

Purse/Accidental Losses:
This is money that is being carried by a person. It is usually of a small size, or in a compact mass.

Abandoned Hoard:
This is a collection of coins that the hoarder has no intention of ever going back to collect. Grave goods, shipwrecks and wishing wells fall into this category.


  • Beauworth, Hampshire (England)8000-9000 silver pennys in a lead chest (William I & II).
  • Birka (Sweden)Silver Coins, ingots, and jewelry (c975).
  • Carrawburgh (England) Well of Coventina15-20,000 coins (Lost between c150 BCE-5th C). Probably 16,000 minted between 100-300
    (including 300 Hadrian “Britannia” coins).
  • Cuerdale, Lancashire (England)7000+ Silver coins (ingots and jewelry)(c.903)
  • Dere Street, Durham Co. (England)8 denarii, 2 sestercii (c.165)
  • Dorchester (England)22,000 debased silver coins (c260)(Found in a bowl, a jug, and a metal box, it is likely
    that this is the tax revenue of a single town).
  • England200,000 Edw I & II silver pennys.
  • Gloucester (England)”Several Thousand” silver, bronze, and a few gold coins all 3d C found in a
    12″x16″ Roman Urn.
  • Newark Hoard (England)97 gold coins (1646)
  • Samual Pepys (England)£4300 in two sites (1667)(All recovered but for £20)
  • Sutton Hoo (England)37 Gold coins, 3 blanks, 2 ingots (c625)
  • Sussex (England)502 Copper, Silver, and Gold coins (1650-1660) +”hundreds more” found later.
  • Thorngrafton Hoard (England)3 Aurei, 60 denari (Hadrian) special*
  • Wroxeter (England)132 Coins (???) (Found on a corpse hiding from a raid)
  • Wiltshire (England)61 Silver Coins. Stuart Coins buried c1680. 1 Cha I 1/2 Crown, 44 Cha II 1/2 Crowns, 16 Cha II Crowns. All in a large mug.
  • Killane, Wexford (Eire)55 Gold Coins (1798)
  • Shannon (Ireland)10 lbs of Gold (c900)
  • Hoard 3 (Italy)41 Silver Coins (c40 BCE)
  • Hoard 4 (Italy)37 Silver Coins (c40 BCE)
  • Hoard 5 (Italy) 22 Silver Coins (c40 BCE)
  • Hoard 7 (Italy) 410 Silver Coins (c40 BCE)
  • Damanhur (Egypt)8000 Tetradrachms (minted 336-323 BCE) buried c.318 BCE.
  • Merovingian (France)? Gold (c625)
  • Modena (Italy)80,000 gold coins (c.50 BCE)
  • Gornoslav Hoard (Bulgaria)786 gold coins (1182) (This appears to be the payroll for for a monastery, buried in a
  • Gotland & Oland (Sweden) & Bornholm (Denmark)800 Gold Solidi (395-550) [Late Roman & Byzantine, possibly gotten from Ostrogoths]
  • Gotland (Sweden)TOTAL: 99,000 Silver coins (40,000 Arab, 38,000 German, 21,000 Anglo-Saxon).
  • Vasa Shipwreck (Sweden)4000 Coins. Gold, Silver, Copper (actually a collection of hoards, including 2 of 900 each in barrels)(1628)


Hobson, Burton and Robert Obojski. Illustrated Encyclopedia of World Coins. 1970
Casey, P.J. Understanding Ancient Coins. 1986.
Burnett, Andrew. Interpreting the Past: Coins. 1991.

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More Oklahoma History than I learned in High School


(Mostly extracted from the History of Tulsa, by Clarence Douglas (1921), and he cites the Oklahoma Red Book.)

The first known inhabitants of Oklahoma were the Osage, Quapaw, Caddo, Wichita, Waco, Tawakony, Kiowa, Comanche, the Apache of the Plains and several other tribes of Indians.

1528-1536 – Four survivors of Cabeca de Vaca’s expedition, captured by the Indians, first saw the buffalo in the Red River Valley and are supposed to have been taken through a portion of Oklahoma.

1541 – Francisco Vasquez de Coronado made an expedition from Mexico northward and is believed to have penetrated as far north as Northeastern Kansas, crossing Western Oklahoma. They named the Great Plains the “Llano Estacado.”

1541-2 – Moscosco and a few survivors of DeSoto’s exploring party are believed to have crossed Eastern Oklahoma.

1549 – Bonilla, Spanish explorer, explored far out on the Great Plains and is believed to have crossed one or more of the counties of Western Oklahoma.

1601 – Onate, Spanish governor of New Mexico, is believed to have passed through the western part of the state in search of Quivira, the land of supposedly fabulous wealth of gold.

1611 – A Spanish expedition · was sent to the Wichita Mountains, and until

1629 Spanish missionaries labored among the tribes in that section.

1650 – Don Diego del Castillo with a force of Spanish spent several months in the Wichita Mountains seeking gold. He found many pearls which he sent to the governor of New Mexico at Santa Fe.

1655 – The Crown of Great Britain made a grant for the colony of Carolina, embracing all the land from the Atlantic to the Pacific between 30 degrees and 36 degrees, 30 minutes north latitude.

1673-Marquette, a French Jesuit missionary, and Louis Joliet, a Quebec trader, floated down the Mississippi River to the mouth of the Arkansas.

1678-1682 – Robert de La Salle explored the Mississippi to its mouth and claimed all land drained by that river and its tributaries for the King of France in whose honor he named the great region Louisiana.

1714 – Saint Denis from New Orleans descended the Red River along the southern boundary of Oklahoma. .

1717 – The Spanish under Padilla marched from the Spanish settlements on the Rio Grande across the Great Plains to punish the Comanche for making warfare on them. They fought a hard battle on the western border of Oklahoma and captured 700 prisoners.

1719 – Bernard de la Harpe, under direction of Governor Bienville at New Orleans, set out from Natchitoches on the Red River to explore the valley of that stream. He passed over Southern and. Southeastern Oklahoma.

1723 – New Orleans was proclaimed as the seat of government for the Territory of Louisiana.

1723 – Etienne Venyard du Bourgmont crossed Oklahoma, visiting the Pawnee, Kaw, Osage, Missouri, and then the Comanche on the Arkansas River in what is now Central Kansas. He ·loaded the Indians with presents in an effort to win their attachment to the French, thus beginning the rivalry with the Spanish for the Great Plains region.

1739-40 – Two brothers named Mallet and four ·companions ascended the Missuri River to the Platte, following that river to the Rocky Mountains. Skirting the mountains, the party went to Santa Fe, N. M., where they spent the winter, separating in the spring, three members of the party returned overland to the Missouri, while the other three passed down the Arkansas through Oklahoma.

1760 – Brevel, a French Creole trader from New Orleans, visited the Wichita Mountains in company with the Caddo Indians. He reported the Spaniards to be engaged in mining operations in the mountains at that time. Spanish priests were also present among the Indians.

1763 – The Territory of Louisiana was secretly ceded to the Spanish by the French to prevent its falling into the hands of the British.

1801 – Louisiana was ceded back to the French by the Spanish.

1803 – Louisiana was purchased by President Thomas Jefferson for the United States for $15,000,000 cash and the assumption of obligations amounting to $3,750,000.

1806 – Captain Richard Sparks, Second United States Infantry, sought to explore the Red River but was met on the southern boundary of Oklahoma by a force of Spanish and compelled to return.

1806 – Lieutenant Wilkinson of Zebulon Pike’s exploring party descended the Arkansas from a point near Great Bend, Kan., to the settlements on the lower course of the river.

1809 – A band of Cherokee Indians made agreement with President Jefferson to move beyond the Mississippi River to what is now the State of Arkansas. These lands were ceded to them by treaty in 1817.

1811 – The Salt Plains of the Cimarron and Salt Fork were explored by George C. Sibley, United States Indian Agent at Fort Osage on the Missouri.

1817 – Fort Smith was established as a military post, at the mouth of the Poteau on the Arkansas River.

1817 – Battle of Claremore Mound between Osages and Cherokees.

1819 – Major William Bradford, stationed at Fort Smith, marched through Eastern Oklahoma to expel “intruders,” most of whom were declared to be renegades and fugitives from the eastern states. He was accompanied by Thomas Nuttall, the noted ‘botanist, who visited the valley of the Grand, Verdigris, Cimarron and the Deep Fork of the Canadian during the season.

1819 – Treaty was made with Spain whereby the Red River was to be the northern boundary of the Spanish possessions to the 100th meridian, following that meridian to the Arkansas River and the channel of that stream westward to the Continental Divide.

1819-20 – Major Stephen Long’s party of engineers entered Western Oklahoma just north of the Canadian River, and following that river, believing it to be the Red River, landed at Fort Smith. His course was generally along the divide between the two Canadians.

1820 – Choctaw treaty made with Generals Jackson and Thomas Hinds, subsequently ratified by the treaty at Washington in 1825 and the Dancing Rabbit Creek treaty in 1830.

1821 – Capt. Nathan Prior, Hugh Glenn and Jacob Fowler left Fort Smith with a party of traders and trappers on ail expedition to the Rocky Mountains. They crossed through Northern Oklahoma.

1822 – The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions established a mission school on the Grand River for the Osage Indians, a few miles north of the spot upon which Cantonment Gibson was built.

1824 – Forts Gibson and Towson were established

1825 – First treaty made with the Creeks for their removal from Georgia. This treaty was confirmed by the treaties of 1826 and 1832.

1825 – The Santa Fe Trail, crossing what is now Texas and Cimarron counties, was laid out.

1826 – Eastern boundary of Oklahoma from Red River to Arkansas was surveyed.

1828 – Treaty made with the Cherokees of Georgia by which they were to move on a reservation of 7,000,000 acres, west of Arkansas, with an outlet to the region of the Great Plains.

Between 1828 and 1836 the Lochapoka, Muscogee establish Tulasi (Tulsey Town), near what is now 18th and Cheyenne.

1830 – By act of Congress provision was made for the establishing of the Indian Territory.

1832 – The Seminole treaty was signed, but was unheeded by the tribe. In 1836 they were provoked into hostilities and in 1842 were forcibly removed to the Indian Territory.

1832 – Chickasaw treaty was .signed at Pontotoc Creek, Miss., and the tribe came to Indian Territory.

1832 – A company of mounted rangers under command of, Capt. Nathan Boone from the Osage Agency, near Fort Gibson, marched ·westward to a point near Guthrie and then turning south passed between the sites of Oklahoma City and El Reno, and thence southeastward across Cleveland and Pottawatomie counties, and to Fort Gibson.

1832 – Judge Henry L Ellsworth’s expedition into the American West brings author Washington Irving to Oklahoma.

1833 – War broke out between the Osage and Kiowa Indians and Gen. Henry Leavenworth with a body of troops marched westward to a point between Anadarko and the Wichita Mountains and thence southwestward through the Wichitas, in an effort to pacify the warring tribes. This led to a general peace council at Fort Gibson.

1835 – Treaty of New Echota. Second treaty made with Cherokees in Mississippi in February with John Ross as principal chief of the tribe. The ‘Cherokees became dissatisfied with the amount fixed by the United States Senate for their lands, which Ross sought to refer to a general council of his people for deliberation. · A meeting held in October resulted in the tribe refusing to consider the offer. At a second council called by the Government in December but few of the Cherokees were present. A treaty was perfected with the few present and the Senate ratified this, making the official proclamation May 23, 1836.

1835-36 – Fort Holmes was established by the American Fur Company of St. Louis as a trading post with the southwestern tribes. Fort Holmes was abandoned three years later when a trading post was established in the southern part of what is now Cleveland County. Choteau, a trading post on the west bank of Cache Creek, near the present site of Lawton, was also established.

1836 – The main body of the Creek tribe moved to their new reservation.

1837 – The Chickasaws and Choctaws made a treaty near Fort Towson by which the Chickasaws purchased a joint interest in the granted Choctaw reservation.

1837 – The treaty with the Kiowa, Apache, Apache of the Plains, and Tawakony was signed.

1837 – The Cherokee Outlet was surveyed by the Rev. Isaac McCoy.

1838 – A force of 2,000 troops under command of Gen. Winfield Scott forcibly moved the Cherokees west.

1839 – As a culmination of the feeling between the “Treaty” .and “AntiTreaty” factions of the Cherokees, Major Ridge and Elias Boudinot were killed. Boudinot’s brother, Stand Watie was also attacked but survived. Civil war in the tribe threatened for a time.

1839 – Bill was introduced in Congress providing for the organization of the Indian Territory. It was submitted to the several tribes but was not largely approved and no action was taken.

1834-39-40 – Santa Fe traders made the trip across Oklahoma from Fort Smith and Van Buren in each of these years under military escort.

1842 – Fort Washita was established twenty-two miles above the mouth of the Washita River.

1843 – Capt. Nathan Boone, son of Daniel Boone, made a second exploring expedition through the valleys of the Arkansas and Cimarron and their tributaries.

1845 – Texas was annexed to the United States.

1846 – The Government succeeded in getting the factions of the Cherokee tribe to sign a treaty between themselves.

1845-48 – Between these years 7,000 Choctaws moved from Alabama and Mississippi to the tribal reservation.

1846 – War broke out with the Kiowas and Comanches.

1846 – Lewis Perryman built a trading post near what is now 33rd and South Rockford.

1849 – A part of California gold seekers crossed the state from Fort Smith and Van Buren, following the valley of the Canadian.

1850 – Texas relinquished all claims to the land north of thirty-six degrees and thirty minutes. The establishment of the bounds of New Mexico left the so-called “No-Man’s-Land” unattached to any state, territory or Indian reservation.

1850 – Lieut. J. H. Simpson laid out an overland trail across Oklahoma from east to west. The route followed the Canadian to a point in what is now the southern part of Cleveland County, on the north side of the river. There a crossing was made to the south side and the trail continued to a point in the northern part of Caddo County where it crossed over into the valley of the Washita, re-entering the Canadian in Roger Mills County.

1851 – Fort Arbuckle was established near the Wichita Mountains.

1852 – Capt. R. B. Marcy led a surveying and exploring expedition up the Red River. Some mistakes made in his map are declared to have resulted in the dispute over the Greer County boundary.

1853 – First attempt was made by the Cherokee and Creek to perfect a treaty with the plains tribes.

1853 – A peace council was held by the Government with the Kiowas, Comanches and Apaches of the Plains, and a part of the terms was that the Government should make a yearly allowance of $18,000 for the ensuing ten years.

1854 – Capt. Patrick Calhoun, son of John C. Calhoun, led an expedition against the hostile Indians in the Wichita Mountains and in the valley of the Red River from Western Texas. Great hardships were experienced in the winter months by the command, Captain Calhoun dying four years later as a result of his broken health, caused by the trying winter of the campaign in Southeastern Oklahoma.

1855 – The Chickasaws and Choctaws signed an agreement by which the Chickasaws obtained their political separation on payment of $150,000.

1856 – A part of the Creek reservation was set aside by a treaty with the Government for the Seminoles.

1857 – Fort Gibson was abandoned as an army post. It was afterwards garrisoned by Confederate and then Federal troops, being finally abandoned in 1890.

1857 – The Choctaws and Chickasaws adopted new tribal constitutions.

1858 – The north boundary line of Oklahoma was surveyed by Lieut. Joseph E. Johnston, afterward famous as a Confederate general. ·

1858 – Camp Radziminski was established in the southern portion of Kiowa County. ·

1859 – Fort Cobb was established in the’ Washita Valley.

1861 – The Choctaw Council on February 7th adopted resolutions declaring their affiliation and sympathy with the southern states in the Civil war.

1861 – Fort Smith was captured by the Confederate forces April 23d; Fort Arbuckle, Fort Cobb and Fort Washita were abandoned by the Union forces and occupied by the Confederates.

1861 – The Chickasaw Legislature, by resolution, allied themselves with the Confederate states.

1861 – The Indian Territory was declared to be under the military control of the Confederacy, May 13th. ·

1861 – Albert Pike, special commissioner of the Confederate States, signed a treaty at Eufaula with the members of the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek and Seminole Nations July 10th-12th and August 1st.

1861 – The Cherokees in council signed a treaty of alliance and friendship with the Confederate states October 7th.

1861 – Alliance and friendship treaties were signed by Commissioner Pike with representatives from parts of the Comanche, Wichita, Waco, Caddo, Anadarko, Tawakony, Tonkawa, Keechi and Delawares August 12th at Anadarko, and with the Osage; Quapaws, Senecas and Shawnees October 2d-4th. The major portion of the Osages and the Shawnees remained loyal to the national government. Many Indians of the respective tribes, ·also, remained loyal to the Union and fought in the Union armies.

1861 – The Trail of Blood on Ice campaign as Opothleyahola tried to move his people out of the Confederate controlled areas, November-December.  Three major battles: Round Mountain. Chusto-Talasah (aka “Caving Banks”), and Chustenahlah.

1862 – Battle of Old Fort Wayne, October 22.

1863 – Battle of Cabin Creek, July 1-2.

1863 – Battle of Honey Springs, July 17.

1864 – Battle of Middle Boggy Depot, February 13.

1865 – Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith, commanding the Trans-Mississippi department of the Confederate Army surrendered at Fort Smith May 26th. The Indians under Gen. Douglas H. Cooper refused to enter into the compact with the Confederates, declaring for a separate agreement of surrender with the Union forces. This surrender was effected June 23d at Doaksville, Choctaw Nation.

1865 – The Chisholm trail was laid out from the present site of Wichita, Kan., to the Wichita-Caddo Agency, where Anadarko is now located.

1866 – The new Seminole treaty was signed March 12th, it being the first with the Indians who had allied themselves with the Confederacy. The joint Chickasaw-Choctaw treaty was signed April 28th; the Creek treaty, June 14th; and the Cherokee, July 19th.

1867 – Removal of the Kansas tribes to Northeastern Indian Territory.

1867 – Medicine Lodge treaty was signed with Kiowas, Comanches, Apaches, Cheyennes and Arapahoes.

1868 – Removal of the Shawnees from Eastern Kansas to the Cherokee country.

1868 – Congress passed an act that there should be no more treaties with the Indians.

1868 – Gen. George A. Custer waged the Washita Valley campaign.  Battle of the Washita River, November 27 left 171 dead.

1870 – The Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railroad began laying its tracks into the Indian Territory.

1872 – The Atlantic & Pacific (now the Frisco), Railway was built, effecting a junction with the Missouri, Kansas & Texas at Vinita.

1869-72 – Quakers were appointed as Indian agents for the Wichita-Caddo and affiliated tribes.

1871-72 – Indian raids in the southwest were renewed under Satanta. Satanta, Satank and Big Tree were arrested for their raids in Texas, found guilty at Jacksboro, Tex., on charge of murder and sentenced to be hanged, but sentence was commuted to life imprisonment.

1872 – The Five Civilized Tribes met with the plains tribes at Fort Cobb and endeavored to get them to leave the warpath.

1874 – The last outbreak on the part of the Kiowa, Comanche, Cheyenne and Arapaho occurred. Peace was restored the following year.

1875 – First cattle ranches were established in Western Indian Territory. ·

1877 – The Northern Cheyennes were brought to Fort Reno from Dakota, Wyoming and Montana.

1878 – A band of the Northern Cheyennes under the leadership of Dull Knife went on a raid and were permitted to return to the north. The remainder of the Cheyennes were escorted to the Pine Ridge Agency in 1883.

1879 – The Carpenter colony of settlers from Kansas City, Mo., made the first attempt to enter the unassigned lands, known as Oklahoma. They were ejected by troops under command of Gen. Wesley Merritt. Another was organized at Topeka, Kan., under J. R. Boyd, and one was organized in Texas to operate from Caddo, Indian Territory. The Carpenter colony entered near what is now Coffeyville, Kan., May 7th.

1879 – Tulsey Town’s 1st post office established by Lewis Perryman in a house at 31st and Lewis.

1880 – The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe built its line to Caldwell, Kan., on the northern border of Indian Territory.

1880 – Capt. David L. Payne and his colony of settlers crossed into Oklahoma, locating in Oklahoma County, where they were apprehended by the troops, taken to Fort Reno, later .escorted to the Kansas line by soldiers, and released June 7th. Within a month Captain Payne returned to Oklahoma and was arrested a second time and taken to Fort Reno and from there to Fort Smith where he was released without bond.

1881 – Stockmen of the Cherokee Strip met at Caldwell, Kan. for the discussion of common interests. This was the beginning of the movement which culminated in the organization of the Cherokee Strip Live Stock Association two years later.

1881 – Captain Payne brought suit in the United States court at Topeka, Kan., for damages on account of his forcible removal from the territory. He was frustrated by repeated postponements and in the fall he went to Texas where he organized his second colony. They came to Oklahoma and encamped on Cache Creek but were expelled by the troops.

1882 – Cattlemen began fencing ranches in the Cherokee Strip.

1882 – Payne went to Washington, D. C., to consult with the Secretary of the Interior in regard to the status of the Oklahoma land, but received no satisfaction. Returning, he organized a third colony and was arrested again and taken to Fort Reno, and thence to Fort Smith, but the case was continued on the motion of the district attorney, and Payne began organizing his followers for a fourth attempt to effect a settlement in Oklahoma.

1882 – The Frisco line reaches Tulsa with Henry C. Hall in charge of the grading.  He and his brother, J. M. Hall set up one of the first stores in what is now downtown Tulsa.  J. M Hall laid out the first streets.

1883 – Payne made another attempt to settle Oklahoma with a colony of several hundred persons. They made their way into the valley of the North Canadian where he was again arrested and taken to Fort Reno while his followers were escorted by the troops to the Kansas border. Payne sought to obtain an injunction against the military authorities in the district court at Topeka in July. A band of 250 “boomers” from Arkansas City left in August for Oklahoma, but Payne was not with them. He and three associates were arrested at Wichita and formally indicted by a federal “grand jury on a charge of conspiracy to violate the laws of the United States, and in the meanwhile the injunction proceedings were postponed from time to time.

1883 – The Esparhechar, or Green Peach, War between Esparhechar and Chief Checota over the leadership of the Muscogee.

1884 – Oklahoma “boomers” began to settle the country singly, instead of coming in a body, but as fast as the settlers were removed others followed. Payne and seven other leaders were arrested August 9th at Rock Falls, four miles south of Hunnewell, Kan., in the Cherokee Strip on a charge of conspiracy by intruding on Indian lands. Judge C. C. Foster, of the United States District Court, held that the title to the land in Oklahoma was vested in the United States, and therefore settlement by citizens was not a criminal offense. This was Payne’s first and only real victory in the courts.

1884 – Captain Payne died suddenly at Wellington, Kan., November 27th, and it was but a few days later when Representative Sidney Clarke, James B. Weaver of Iowa, and W. M. Springer of Illinois, aligned themselves behind a bill providing for the opening and settlement of Oklahoma. Representative Clarke introduced the bill.

1884 – First Presbyterian Church opens in Tulsa.

1885 – W. L. Couch, one of Payne’s lieutenants, moved from the Kansas line at the head of a large colony of “boomers,” little more than a month after the death of Payne. The party reached the Valley of Stillwater Creek, where they encamped, laid out a town, and staked claims, but were driven out at the point of guns to the Kansas border.

1885 – Couch and twelve leaders were arrested on a charge of treason in January and were placed in jail in Wichita. The Oklahoma lands were declared Indian lands by President Cleveland March 13th. The ·cattlemen were notified by the military authorities to move, but no record is had that they heeded the notice. Couch and his companions were released some weeks later when General .Hatch, who had ousted them from Stillwater Creek failed to appear at the trial.

1885 – President Cleveland issued a proclamation ordering the removal of the cattle ranch fences from the ranges of Oklahoma, August 7th. The last effort at colonization was under the leadership of Couch during the fall, but the colonists were removed by Lieut. Col. E. V. Summer, Fifth Cavalry, November 10th.

1885 – The beginning of construction work on the new railroad from Arkansas City south to Fort Worth, Tex., was begun. This gave the “boomers” inspiration that the lands would soon be opened to settlement.

1886 – The Santa Fe was completed north and south across the country

1887 – Immigration of settlers into “No-Man’s Land” began.

1889 – The Oklahoma bill was passed by the House of Representatives early in February, but Senator Preston B. Plumb, of Kansas, made an impassioned speech when it was reported from the senate committee on territories and the measure failed to pass, but the famous “rider” on the Indian appropriation bill, opening Oklahoma to settlement, was passed by Congress and it became a law March 3, 1889. March 23d, President Harrison issued the proclamation naming April 22d as the day of opening.

1890 – The organic act was passed and became a law May 2d, giving the land an organized form of territorial government.

1890 – The population of the Indian Territory as reported by the federal census was 179,321, of which number 50,616 were Indians. The population of Oklahoma was given at 61,834.

1890 – The reported corning of an Indian Messiah caused much unrest among the whites as Indians in Western Oklahoma began holding a series of “ghost dances.”

1890 – George W. Steele of Indiana was appointed territorial governor May 22d.

1890 – First election for choosing members to Legislature was held August 5th.

1891 – A. J. Seay was appointed territorial governor October 18th.

1891 – The surplus lands of the Sac and Fox, the Iowa, and the Shawnee-Pottawatomie reservations were opened to settlement September 22d. .

1893 – Governor A. J. Seay was removed from office by President Cleveland in May and W. C. Renfrow was appointed to fill the vacancy.

1893 – The Cherokee Outlet and the surplus lands of the Pawnee and Tonkawa reservations were opened to settlement September 16th.

1893 – President Cleveland appointed Ex-Senator Henry L. Dawes of Massachusetts, Meredith H. Kidd of Indiana, and Archibald S. McKennon of Arkansas, members of the Dawes commission November 1st.

1893 – Dennis T. Flynn, delegate from Oklahoma Territory in Congress, introduced a bill in the fifty-third Congress providing for the admission of Oklahoma and Indian territories as a joint state.

1895 – In May the Kickapoo surplus lands were opened to settlement.

1896 – Greer County was made a part of Oklahoma by act of Congress, approved May 4th.

1896 – A statehood-convention was held in Oklahoma City, January 8th. Two separate calls had been issued for the meeting, one by the supporters of the joint statehood movement and the other for the separate statehood idea. The meeting was disrupted soon after it convened. Two chairmen were elected by the rival factions and a wrangle resulted which was stopped only by the lights being turned out.

1897 – Cassius. M. Barnes was appointed in April by President McKinley to succeed Governor Renfrow, whose term of office had expired.

1898 – Spanish-American war broke out and many young men from Oklahoma and the Indian territories answered the calls for troops.

1898 – Tulsa was formally incorporated and elected its first Mayor, Edward Calkins.

1899 – The Curtis bill was passed in February.

1900 –  Smallpox epidemic in Tulsa.

1901 – The Crazy Snake “uprising” was advertised in a sensational manner by newspapers, when some of the Creeks refused to accept allotments. A faction elected Chitto Harjo chief and he called a special meeting of the National Council. He was later arrested with several of his followers, when much excitement had been stirred up, and was confined in jail for a time.

1901 – Gas and oil were discovered in the vicinity of Tulsa, Red Fork, Sapulpa and other towns of the Creek Nation early in the spring.

1901 – William M. Jenkins was appointed governor April 15th to succeed Governor Barnes.

1901 – The reservations of the Kiowa, Comanche, Wichita, Caddo, Apache of the Plains and the affiliated tribes were opened to settlement by registration July 9th. The drawing began August 6th.

1901 – Governor Jenkins was .removed from office by President Theodore Roosevelt and Thompson B. Ferguson was named as his successor November 30th.

1902 – The senate committee on territories visited Oklahoma in the fall. A bill providing for single statehood of the two territories was reported· out by the senate committee when Congress met in December, but the bill became involved with the New Mexico-Arizona statehood question and action was deferred.

1905 – The Sequoyah Constitutional Convention met in Muskogee in July. William H. Murray was chosen president. It proposed the formation of a separate state of the Indian Territory to be named Sequoyah.

1905 – First two public schools built in Tulsa.

1905 – Kendall College president A. Grant Evans designed the Seal for the proposed State of Sequoyah.  In 1907 former Kendall student Gabe E. Parker, incorporated much of that into the Great Seal of Oklahoma.

1906 Frank Frantz was appointed to succeed Governor T. B. Ferguson, whose term of office had expired.

1906 – Congress passed the single statehood bill and it became a law June 14th.

1906 – Under the provisions of the enabling act, the delegates to the Constitutional Convention met in Guthrie, November 2oth, and was in session almost continuously until the latter part of April of the following year.

1907 – Election of first state officials was held Saturday, November 16th. C. N. Haskell, democrat, of Muskogee, was chosen first governor, defeating Frank Frantz, territorial governor, and candidate of the republican party.

1907 – Henry Kendall College is moved to Tulsa from Muskogee.

1909 – Crazy Snake Rebellion over allegations of some stolen smoked meat.

1910 – Lee Cruce, democrat, was elected governor, defeating Joe McNeal of Guthrie, the candidate of the republican party.

1914 – R. L. Williams, democrat, defeated John Fields.

1917 – Green Corn Rebellion.

1918 – J. B. A. Robertson, democrat, defeated H. G. McKeever

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Academy of Armor notes on Cooking, part 1

Book III, Chapter 6, p. 292-3

Being now outwardly furnished by such instruments as serve for our necessary covering; let us see what tools are used in arms by such trades as support out being, and without which there is no subsistence; these are principally three, the first is the Butcher, whose instruments of Slaughter, Blood, Wounds, and Death are as follows:

47XLVII. He Beareth Gules, a Butcher’s Cambril, Or: between two Seuers, and Raising Prick, Argent.  This is born by the name of Buncher.

B. A Cambrel between 3 knives O. Blades A. is born by Bucher.
A 3 Cambrels in Pale G. born by Cambwell, alias Cambell.
G a Fesse between three Raising Pricks A. Born by Prickett.

[Note:  A Cambrel is a bent piece of wood or iron used by butchers to hang carcasses of animals on. – OED]

48XLVIII He Beareth Azure, a Butcher’s Axe, between his Steel and Knife bendwise, Proper.  The Butcher or Slaughter-Man in the slaughter house uses the Axe to strike down Beasts, as Bulls, Cows, Heifers, and Oxen; and by the same instrument doth divide, cut and break their bones; also at the Shambles where they fell their meat both the Axe and the Cleaver are used to cut the Quarter of Beasts into smaller and more vendable pieces.

B 2 such axes in Salter, between 3 bulls heads couped, Argent. Horned and on a Chief O, a Boarshead G. between 2 Garbs V is the coat armour of the Company of Butchers.
A 3 Butcher’s Steels and Rings, B. Halves O. born by […]
B 3 Knives A Halves O, born by Knife.

The Butchers Steel hath a round turning Ring at the head or one handle by which he hangs it at his Apron strings on the left side, which is his only badge of being a Slaughter-Man: upon this steel, by a nimble and dexterous way they whet and sharpen the dull edge of the Slaughter-Knife.

49XLIX He Beareth Vert, a Dutch Butcher’s Cleever, and a Chopping Knife; the Chopping Knife is to mince and shred the Flesh off the Bones, small for Pyes and such like use, etc.

The Dutch Cleever or Chopping Knife, so called by reason it is much born by them in Aims (and is termed a hacker, or hack-mes) but seldom or never  born with us.

S 3 Dutch Cleevers in Pale A. born by Hacker.
G 3 such in Pale O born by S[…]. These are also termed in Pale [pointed] to the Sinister because their cuttings are […].

50L.  He beareth sable, three Punching Hooks in Pale, the haft […], and the third Angle Hooked, proper. By the help of the Punching Hook, the skin is with much ease taken off any beast, by striking and pricking between the Skin or Hide, and the Fleshwhich causeth a separation between them. This is born by the name [But]cher.

G  3 Punching Hooks in Fess A, handles O. is born by Skilmere. The usual Hook u sed by the Butcher hath but one Bend, but if it have more then term it double or treble as aforesaid.

51LII. He Beareth Argent, on a Hook issuing out of the Chief; a Leg of Veal proper. Some term it a Leg of Veal or Mutton hung by the ham-string on a hook […] Gules. This is a Cognizance belonging […] and for most Cooks shops […] felt hung in the window, or by its shape and figure in a sign over the door.


52LII. He Beareth Or, a Westphalia Ham, hung in an Iron Staple, proceeding out of Chief, Sable.  Some term it an Ham of Pork, or a Leg of Bacon ham-like.  The sweetest of Bacons is that which is said to come from Westphalia, because there they are fed with Walnuts and Chestnuts; many of our English Cheats with their feeding of Swine with Pease, Corn and Acorn (to sweeten the flesh) besides their Art used to colour them red, have come very near the Westphalian Ham, both in colour and taste, yet could never attain the full skill, and the reason is very plain; for that as we take Westphalia Bacon, is no other than the Ham of a Cub, or Young Bear, the delicate taste of whose flesh, our Bacon cannot attain unto by any Art.

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