Academy of Armor notes on Cooking, part 1

Book III, Chapter 6, p. 292-3

Being now outwardly furnished by such instruments as serve for our necessary covering; let us see what tools are used in arms by such trades as support out being, and without which there is no subsistence; these are principally three, the first is the Butcher, whose instruments of Slaughter, Blood, Wounds, and Death are as follows:

47XLVII. He Beareth Gules, a Butcher’s Cambril, Or: between two Seuers, and Raising Prick, Argent.  This is born by the name of Buncher.

B. A Cambrel between 3 knives O. Blades A. is born by Bucher.
A 3 Cambrels in Pale G. born by Cambwell, alias Cambell.
G a Fesse between three Raising Pricks A. Born by Prickett.

[Note:  A Cambrel is a bent piece of wood or iron used by butchers to hang carcasses of animals on. – OED]

48XLVIII He Beareth Azure, a Butcher’s Axe, between his Steel and Knife bendwise, Proper.  The Butcher or Slaughter-Man in the slaughter house uses the Axe to strike down Beasts, as Bulls, Cows, Heifers, and Oxen; and by the same instrument doth divide, cut and break their bones; also at the Shambles where they fell their meat both the Axe and the Cleaver are used to cut the Quarter of Beasts into smaller and more vendable pieces.

B 2 such axes in Salter, between 3 bulls heads couped, Argent. Horned and on a Chief O, a Boarshead G. between 2 Garbs V is the coat armour of the Company of Butchers.
A 3 Butcher’s Steels and Rings, B. Halves O. born by […]
B 3 Knives A Halves O, born by Knife.

The Butchers Steel hath a round turning Ring at the head or one handle by which he hangs it at his Apron strings on the left side, which is his only badge of being a Slaughter-Man: upon this steel, by a nimble and dexterous way they whet and sharpen the dull edge of the Slaughter-Knife.

49XLIX He Beareth Vert, a Dutch Butcher’s Cleever, and a Chopping Knife; the Chopping Knife is to mince and shred the Flesh off the Bones, small for Pyes and such like use, etc.

The Dutch Cleever or Chopping Knife, so called by reason it is much born by them in Aims (and is termed a hacker, or hack-mes) but seldom or never  born with us.

S 3 Dutch Cleevers in Pale A. born by Hacker.
G 3 such in Pale O born by S[…]. These are also termed in Pale [pointed] to the Sinister because their cuttings are […].

50L.  He beareth sable, three Punching Hooks in Pale, the haft […], and the third Angle Hooked, proper. By the help of the Punching Hook, the skin is with much ease taken off any beast, by striking and pricking between the Skin or Hide, and the Fleshwhich causeth a separation between them. This is born by the name [But]cher.

G  3 Punching Hooks in Fess A, handles O. is born by Skilmere. The usual Hook u sed by the Butcher hath but one Bend, but if it have more then term it double or treble as aforesaid.

51LII. He Beareth Argent, on a Hook issuing out of the Chief; a Leg of Veal proper. Some term it a Leg of Veal or Mutton hung by the ham-string on a hook […] Gules. This is a Cognizance belonging […] and for most Cooks shops […] felt hung in the window, or by its shape and figure in a sign over the door.


52LII. He Beareth Or, a Westphalia Ham, hung in an Iron Staple, proceeding out of Chief, Sable.  Some term it an Ham of Pork, or a Leg of Bacon ham-like.  The sweetest of Bacons is that which is said to come from Westphalia, because there they are fed with Walnuts and Chestnuts; many of our English Cheats with their feeding of Swine with Pease, Corn and Acorn (to sweeten the flesh) besides their Art used to colour them red, have come very near the Westphalian Ham, both in colour and taste, yet could never attain the full skill, and the reason is very plain; for that as we take Westphalia Bacon, is no other than the Ham of a Cub, or Young Bear, the delicate taste of whose flesh, our Bacon cannot attain unto by any Art.

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Academy of Armory TOC, Part 2

Please note that the material in this section section were never actually published by Holme, although apparently some manuscript pages may exist at the British Library.

The Second Part of the Third Book Treateth of Houshold Goods, Instruments of Recreation, Arms Offensive and Defensive, Field Fights, &c. With several other sorts of Mecanical Impliments, by which it is concluded.


Treateth of all sorts of Goods belonging, and useful for a House, and Family; and are necessary for a Kitchin, Hall, Parlour, or Lodging-room.


Treateth of all sorts of writing Instruments, Scrowls, Papers, Books, Libraries. Also such things as are necessary for Navigation, as Boats, Lighters, Ships, and Fire ships with Men-of-war: with all the terms given to an Anchor, Masts, Sails, Riggings, and every Part of a Ship, inward, and outward: The Names of all sorts of Boats, and Ships, with the terms of the Irons about them: with the Sailers Terms, when they are about Sailing: or Sea Fights.


Treateth of several sorts of Musical Instruments, both of VVind, and String Musick: And such as are plaid on by the Hands, or with Sticks. Things for Gaming, as Cards, Dice, Tables, Tennis, Hunting, Birding, Hawking, Fishing and VValking: VVith the Names, and terms belonging to each part of the aforesaid Instruments, and of their manner of Plays and Exercises.

In the Second Plate of this Chapter, is an Addition of some few things that should have been in Chap. 14. about Houshold Goods: And in Chap. 15. amongst things belonging to Shipping, and to be added to this Chapter unto the Instruments for Hunting, Birding Fishing, and Chess, and to be as a Supplement to the succeeding Chap. 17, 18, 19. Of some Offensive and defensive Weapons, and Souldiers: Also of the manner of Fortifying of Cities, and great Towns with Walls, or Bulwarks, with the terms used by Souldiers in their Fights, Sieges, Marching, Encampings: With Ingineers terms, for all the parts of Mudwall Fortifications.


Treateth of Offensive and Defensive Arms, as Armour, from head to foot, and how each part is termed: Of Spears, Lances, Bows and Arrows, Clubs, Bills, Halberts, with such like; with the Names of every Part and Member of the said several Warlike Weapons.


Treateth of all sorts of flying Field Colours, as the Standard, Ensign, Penon, Banner and Guydon. Leading Staves, Swords, Rapiers, Fauchions; with great and small Artillery and Engines for Battery, with all the parts, and terms used about the same, in every branch and member thereof, and the things belonging to them.


Treateth of men at Arms, and the words of Command and Posture for the Pike, Pike and Target, Musket, the several beatings of the Drum, the Offices of Souldiers from the lowest to the highest Commander. The terms for carrying, and displaying of an Ensign, the Honour, and Dignity of an Ensign.

The Play at Foils, or Rapier, with the terms used at it, and Sword play: with necessary things fit to be known in the Art of Defence. The Names and Places of all the Roman, Greek, and English Army-Officers, from the first to the last in Command. The 6 Points of War sounded by the Trumpet. The manner of Mustering, and the way of Horse-firing, and Office of all Horse-Officers, from first to last.

Of Combats or Duels for Life, the ancient manner of Challenges, in what Causes to be denied, preparations for it, and the manner of the Combatants coming to the Field, the Victors manner of Return. The original of Tilts and Tourneyments, the Exercise and Prize. Barriers, and the manly Exercise thereof, who admitted to these Heroick Exercises.

Terms for the Riding, and Exercise of the War-horse, Race-horse, and Hackney. The Exercise, Motions, Words of Command therein, and their manner of Fireing, and Fighting: Of the use of Iron Chariots, Wheels, and Elephants in War. The manner of Exerciseing the Foot Company, with the terms given to each part of it, being drawn up into a Body: Of Distances, Facings, Doublings, Conversions, Countermarches, Wheelings; with Observations upon all Motions.

Of the Marching, Imbattailing, Encamping, of an Army; both by the Greeks, Romans, and our Modern Armies: Of the Name and term given to the several parts, or divisions of an Army. Of the manner of Fireing both by Forlorns, Ranks Divisions, Vollies, &c. Of Victory, and of the Greek and Roman manner of Triumphs after Victory: and Gifts and Rewards given to Souldiers for valour and service.

Of Souldiers Punishments; with brief discourses of the Souldiers Priviledges, Wages, Donatives, Apparel, Hostages, Prisoners, Rescues, Paroles, Leagues, and Allies, Treaties, Enemies, Ambassadors, and Dismissions, or Disbanding after Wars

In the second Plate of this Chapter, Treateth of some sorts of Armor both Defensive and Offensive, used by the Ancient Romans, and in our modern times, since the use of Fire-Arms. Instrument belonging to a Gardiner; a Wax and Tallow Chandler, and the Lanthorn-maker. With several other Tools and Instruments belonging to Trades formerly omitted and therefore set in this place.


Treateth of the Instruments belonging to a Silk Weaver, Button-maker, Printers of Books, Letter Founders, Pin-makers, and Plate-workers, with some Castles, and Heathenish Temple, Alters or Tables, used by those peo[ple] before Christianity.


Treateth of such Instruments as are used by Tin-men, or workers of Tin Plate; Brass Founders, Cutlers, Tobacco pipe-makers, and Tobacco cutters, with their cutting Engine, Presses, Mill, and Wheel. Also Tools belonging to a Pastry-Cook; and such as are used about Angleing and Fishing, with several sorts of Nets, Hooks, and Decoying Wills. And in the end, those that belong to the Sope-Maker, and Sugar-Boiler.


The Fourth Book Treateth of the Art of Blazon, both of Single and Double Coats, according as the Charges are interposed with the Ordinaries, or the Ordinaries with them; of Impaleing, and Marshalling of Coats, according to the Degrees of Persons. Badges of Kingdoms; Orders and Processions of State, and at Coronations: The Solemnizing of Funerals, with Precedency of Persons.


Treateth of Coats of single Charges, and so proceeding to the Number ten: how Blazoned when Charges are in place of the Ordinaries, on, or between them: or if they be interposed with the Charges: or if confusedly commixt one with another.


Treateth of Examples of Coats, which have Variety of Ordinaries, and Charges, in one and the same Bearing. Also of Coats, which are Charged with Variety of Charges, without any Ordinaries interposing.


Treateth of the Marshalling part of Heraldry, which is to impale Coats together, as Baron and Femme; or according to the Functions of Persons, putting the Spiritual and Temporal Coats together. Also of Quartering of Coats, according to the number of Heirs Married withal; or else according to Coats by the Gift of Princes. And lastly assigning to each Family his due difference as there are branched out of the main stock, or House: giving such those Rebatements of Honor, who have carried themselves according to their Significations.


Treateth of the Adorning of Arms above the Escochion, that is with Crown, Miters, Caps, or Hats, according to the degrees of Persons. Of the several ways Crests have been born, and in what, before the use of Wreaths: And of the variously contriving of Crests, contrary to simple Charges, of which there is set down many Examples, of things between; things pierced, and things held, or supported, by Crests.


Treateth of Beasts in several Postures, Arms diversly bended, Demy-Persons, and in whole, in various Actions: and lastly, several things mixt together for one Crest.


Treateth of the Marshalling of Coats, by adorning them about, either with Compartments, Garters, Collars of Esses, Scarffs, Branches; or else on the side of the Escochions, which is by Supporters, Swords, Feathers, Crosiers, and Crosses; or else by things under the Escochion by Escrowles, Badges of Honor, and Emblems, of such Persons, Places, and Dignities. And in the last place, giving Examples of Mantlings, both Ancient and Modern, according to the Degrees, and Offices of Persons, whether Spiritual or Temporal.


Treateth of several Forms of Supporters, composed of, and from divers Proportions; or Examples of divers Antique Supporters, drawn forth according to the Fancy of the Bearers.


Treateth of the Marshalling of whole Atchievements, due and belonging to each Degree, from the Peasant to the Prince; with all their Titles of Worship, Honor, and Dignity; with the Blazon, of all the Coats of the Nobility of England, in their several Degrees, with their Crests and Supporters.


Treateth of the Badges, or Tokens of Kingdoms, whereby one is known, or distinguished from the other: the Ensigns, or Banners of all the European Kingdoms; displayed in their proper Colours: the Ensigns, or Coa… or Seals, of the Cities and Towns Corporate in England Blazoned; the Badges of Houses, as University Colledges, Halls, Inns of Courts, Abbies, and such like.


Treateth of the Badges of Princes, and Noble Persons, with the Tokens, and Cognizance of their Offices, Degrees, and Orders: both Military and Civil, Spiritual and Temporal. The Signs, Marks, and Tokens of Armies, distinguishing of Regiments, and Companies, that each Souldier may know his Leader and Company. Also the Coats and Cognizance of Trades, and Tradesmen; with the Mark used by Merchants, and such as Traffick beyond Seas.


Treateth of the Orders, and Processions of great Persons Baptized, with the Ceremonies attending such magnificent Solemnities. Also of the Order and Manner of the Solemnization of Marriages of great Personages; several Presidents of such described.


Treateth of the Pompous Progression, and Ceremonies of several great Princes, and Potentates, at their Inauguration, and Crowning; and of divers Kings and Queens riding in Triumph through the City of London, before their Coronations; their going to Parliament; with several other Processions of State, both in this Kingdom, and in other Foreign Places: with the Feasts and Banquets used at the time of such Ceremonies. Also of the Precedency of all Orders, and Dignities, according to their Office, and Place and Birth.


Treateth of Funerals for all degrees of Persons, as of Gentlemen, Esquires, Knights, and Baronets; the manner of Foreign Funerals, both Ancient, and Modern; as Iews, Greeks, Romans, &c.


Treateth of the Funerals of a Baron, Viscount, Earl, a Bishop, and Arch-bishop; with Persons in high Offices, and Places of great Dignity; with the Form, and Descriptions of Hearses, Monuments, and Trophies of Honour set over them.


Treateth of the Funeral of a Marquess, Duke, Prince, or any Great Potentate: the Forms of ther Hearses, with other Funeral Ceremonies, with which all is concluded.

Post Funera nihil.


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Academy of Armory TOC, Part 1


The First Book Treateth generally of the Rules of Heraldry as to the Honorable Ordinaries how they have been Anciently and Modernly termed, with the several Ways or Methods of Blazon.

Treateth of the Original, and Office of Heraulds, their Colledge, and Fees

Treateth of the Shields and Bucklers, their Various Names, of what was made, and the diverse Forms of them, how used: and what colours have been used of them, their Signification, and worthiness of one above another, and of the points of the Escochion.

Treateth of the Antiquity of Arms, and first Painting of Shields; the Colours used in Arms, and Rules of Blazon in General, and in Particular; with the several ways of Blazoning of Arms.
Of the Honorable Ordinaries, and their Composition according to their several Lines.  As of the Chief and its diverse ways of Bearing. On the Pale; and Pile; the Gyron, and Canton; with their several ways of composition.

Treateth of the Bend, Bendlett, and Cost: The Fesse, the Barr, and Barrulett.  The Escochion, the Treasure and Orle: With the Flanche, and Flanques, according to their several Compositions.

Treateth of all Sorts of Crosses, that are in Arms and their Names by whome they are born.

Treateth of the Cheveron, the Cheveronell, and the Couple Close: The Salter, and Frett: The Roundlett, with its Terms answerable to the Colour.  Of the Loseng, Fusill, and Masele.  Of the Gutte, or Drop, and its diverse Blazoning.  Of the Bordures, and their several Compositions.

Treateth of Furrs, and Tinctures of Fields, according to several Forms and Shapes: As by Abatements, by Ordinaries, Per Pile, Pale, Fess, Bend, and Per Cheveron.  As also Tinctures of Fields by a twofold Ordinary, as Per Pale and Pile; Per Pale and Salter, &c.  Also Tinctures of Fields of Obscure Ordinaries, as Barry Bendy, Losengy, &c.

Treateth of the File and Lambeaux: Of the bearing of Ordinaries, one upon another; Between one anotherl By the side one of another; and Commixt.  Also of Ordinaries Diminishing one anotherl and Piercing or Fretting one another.

Treateth of some Sorts of Bearings, which are Omited in the Former Chapters.  To all the foresaid Bearings, are set down the Name or Surnames of such Famileys, as have such Charges in their Coats of Arms.


The Second Book Treateth in General of all Essential and Created Beings, in whome there is either Life, or Motion, as Vegetative, Sensitives, and Rational Creatures.
Treateth of things in Heaven, as GOD the Father, the Son, and Holy Spirit, Cherubims, and Seraphims: The differences of the Heavens. The Description of the Heathen Gods and Goddesses; Demi Gods and Countrey-Gods, and Goddesses.  The Holy Order of Angels, the Infernal Order of the Devils, And the Names the Devil is called by.

Of the Heavenly Sphere, with its Circles Names. Of the Planets, and how described; And the Signs of the Zodiak. With the Names of the Northern and Southern Stars. Of the Sun and Moon. Of the Element of Air, and Wind, with the products thereof.

Of the Element of Fire, and its Products. The Reason of the Change of the Moon, and its Eclipse; Of the Aspects, and their Characters: With some Terms used by Astronomers, and Astrologers, concerning the Celestial Sphere.


Treateth of the Element of Water, the Several Sorts, and Terms of Waters. Of the Terrestrial Globe, and Element of Earth, with its Products; Of the Fom Parts of the World, and what Kingdom, Countreys, and Islands, are in each Part.

Of Minerals, Metals, and Moulds. Of Stones, and Precious Gems.


Treateth of Trees of all Sorts, Shrubs, Dead Wood, and Perished Trees: Of Roots, Mushrooms, and several Sorts of Corn, and Grass.


Treateth of all Sorts of Flowers, Leaves, and Herbs; with their Descriptions, and Colours. Of Fruitage, and Flowerage.


Treateth of the Affinity of Leaves; Also of Seeds, Pods, and Fruit. Of Some Trees before omitted in the Third Chapter. With the Terms used by Herbalists, about the Roots, Stocks, Leaves, and Fruit of Trees: With other Terms used by them.


Treateth of the Affinity of Leaves, and Flowers, belonging to Herbs and Plants; With the Name assigned the Leaf according to its shape and form. Also such Terms as are given to Clusters of Flowers, according to the form they grow in. And Names to perticular, or single Flowers, according to their kinds. With Terms used by Florists and Gardeners; and the Instruments they use. Of the signification of Trees, Plants, Fruits, Flowers, and Herbs used in Coats of Arms.


Treateth of the several Kinds of Beasts, and Cattle, the Terms for all their parts, when they are in Compa∣nies, according to their Age: Also Terms for there Engendering, and bringing forth Young. The Voices of Beasts, Lodging and Feeding: With the names of the Male and Female, of Beasts. The several postures of Beasts; how Termed, when standing upright Of Horsemanship, with the Terms used about the Horse, as its Parts, Bones, Diseases.


Treateth of divers and various Beasts, Vermin, Lizards, and Amphibious four-footed Creatures. With the terms used, for the several ways of bending the Legs, and Arms in Heraldry.


Treateth of several other Beasts and Cattle, Foreign and Domestick, the parts of a Bull and Cow; their Diseases, the Benefit and Blessing of Cows, Terms used by Cowherds, and Instruments used by them.

Shepherds Terms about Sheep, their Parts, Diseases, and Observations in them. Swineherds Terms about Swine, their Parts and Diseases. Hunters Terms, sorts of Dogs their parts, and Diseases.
Of Insects, Bees, Worms, Serpents, their Voices; terms about Bees and Honey; sorts of Flies and Butterflies, and of what Worms they proceed. Of the several terms used for the turning of Serpents Tails in Heraldry.


Treateth of Monsterous Creatures, Amphibious Creatures, and Bigenerous Creatures; of the Caterpiller, and several other sorts of Worms, and Insects, not mentioned before. The signification of Beasts in Armory.


Treateth of Fowl, and Birds of Prey, with other Birds of the Woods, and Mountains, as also Domestick. Observations of Birds of Prey. Sorts of Hawks: The names of the Males and Females: and according to their Age: The parts of an Hawk, their Diseases, and the terms used by Falconers: And things used about Hawks. Of Cocking, and the terms used by Cock-masters, of Cockpit-laws.


Treateth of several other sorts of Fowls, Foreign and Domestick: Also of Monstrous Birds.


Treateth of several Foreign Birds, with their Parts, and Members, as born in Arms, not mentioned in the former Chapters. The signification of Birds used in Arms; the parts of all Birds in General, inwards and outwards; with other remarkable things in them, and not in other Creatures. Voices of Birds, how termed in Companies. Of Poultry, and Terms for their Age. With the Explanation of Naturalists terms, in their Description of Birds.


Treateth of Fish of all sorts, their Covering, Form, and Shape; the Parts of a Fish. Of their names according to the Age, and how termed in Companies. As also of all sorts of Shell-fish.


Treateth of other sorts of Fish, and some Shell fish, omitted in the last Chapter Of Monstrous shaped fish.


Treateth of Monsters of the Sea, and Fish of lesser knowledge, because but rarely seen. The signification of Fish used in Arms: The terms used by Historians in the Description of Fish; Explained, as also terms of Blazoning.


Treateth of Mankind, of all the parts, as born in Arms: with the Cyrurgeons, and Anatomists terms used for all the members of the Body, inwards and outward: Of the Senses, and various Voices of Men: And Names given to the Male and Female, according to their Ages. Men and Women Metamorphosed.

Time in all its parts of Time, how severally described, or drawn into Emblems, and Figures; and other things depending upon Time, illustrated. Of Men punished in Hell.

The Emblems of the Faculties of the Mind or Soul; and the Passions, and a Description of them. Of the Diseases of the Body inward, and outward. The terms of the Art of Palmestry, and Names of the Lines in the Hand. And of several Words and terms used by Chyrurgions, and Anatomists, about Man’s Body.


Treateth of several things omitted in the Chapters of this Second Book, which are here added, and are to be transferred to their mentioned Places.


The Third Book Treateth of Vestments for the Ornament of the Body according to Places, and Esteme, with all the I … of the Liberal Siences, or that are used by Mechanick Trades, and who beareth such things in their Coats Armor.


OF the Ornaments for the Head, as Crowns, …rels, Caps of Dignity, Morions, Miters … Turbots, Hats, Hoods and Tanks. O … for the Feet, as Hose, Startops, Garters, Shoos … and Broges, with the terms of all parts of them.


Treateth of Bands, Ruffs, Gorgets, Sleeves, Manches, Gloves, Coats, Dublets, Robes, cloakes, Girles Scarfs. Ornaments for the Hands and Fingers, as Rings, Annulets, Bracelets, Chains of Gold, Jewels, Scepters Monds, Maces, Virges, Swords of State, Crossiers, Rods, Crosses, Crucifixes, and Cruches. Purse of Estate, Purses with the several Names, or terms given to each part of them.

Also all sorts of Coins, or Moneys, used amongst the Ancient Iews, Greeks, and Romans, and what value it beareth with our English Money. Also all our English and Scotch Coins, both of Silver and Gold: With the Names and Descriptions of all the sorts of Coin used in our neighbouring Kingdoms and Countries, Alphabetically set down; whether Brass, Silver, or Gold; and their value with ours.


Treateth of Emperors and Kings; of their Robes and Ensigns of Regality, the Ceremonies of their Coronations, Offices for those Festivals; and Officers and Servants belonging to the King’s Houshold, with their Fees.

A Description of several Ancient Emperors, Kings and Princes; with the 9 Worthies. The Ceremonies at the Creation of a Prince, Arch-duke, Duke, Marquess and Earl: Of the Domestick and State Officers belonging to the Earl of Chester. A Viscount and Baron, and the manner of their Creations.

Several sorts of Barons, Knights: Orders and Statutes for Knights of the Garter, Officers belonging to the Garter. Creation and Habet of a Knight of the Bath. A Knight Banneret and Baronet. A Knight how made, and degrading of Knighthood: A Catalogue of the several Orders of Knights Secular.

The Creation of a King and Herauld of Arms, The Office a Major, with the Officers of a City, or Corporation, and their Habits. The Lord Chief … his Habit. A Serjeant at Law his Habit, and Ceremony at his making. The Officers in the Common Law, and Courts of Chancery: The Chancelors. … of Divinity, Civil Law, and Physick; their …, and Ceremonies at the receiving of their De… The Officers in the Universities, and Degrees … Scholars, with their Habits: And of a Beads man, an Hospitaller, or Alms man.

Of the Esquire, and the several Degrees of Esquires. Of Gentlemen, and the several Degrees of them, and how made so. Of Yeomen, Freeholders, Pages, Servants, and Labourers: With the several sorts of them A Countrey Clown, or Bore described.

The several Countrey Occupations, as the Mower, with what terms is used about Hav making. Thrasher, with several Terms of Husbandry about Tillage, Sowing, and Reaping; Thrashing, Winding of Corn.

Of the Huntsman, Courser, Forester, and Faulconer, with their Terms of Art.

Also the several Occupations in Cities, as Cooks with their Terms in Cookery; and how to send up Dishmeats in their Order, at Grand Feasts. Of the Baker, Tanner, Glower, Currier, with their Terms.

And the Butcher, with his Terms for all the pieces of Meat cut in the Shambles; either from, or in Beef, or Veal, Mutton, Pork, and Brawn.

With the Smith, Farrier, Gun-smith, Lorrinor, Spurrier, Gold-smith, Jeweller, Lapidarie, Pinner, or Pinmaker, Needle-maker, Tyn-man, and Cutler with his several sorts of cutting Weapons. Also Pewterers, Founders, or Brasiers, Plummers, Card-makers, and Saddlers, with the several parts of a Saddle, Bridle, Pillion, and Side-saddle.

Of the Taylor, with the parts of the Doublet, Coat, Breeches, Cloak, Womens Gowns, Mantues, Wastcoats, and Petticoats. The Upholsterers, with their terms for the several parts of a Bed, and Hanging about a Room. Of the Semster, Laundress, Needle-work Mistress, with the severall terms of Needle-work.

The Shoomaker, with the names of St. Hugh’s Bones, and the terms of their Size. And of the Embroiderer, the Joyner, Carpenter, Tallow-chandler, and Waxchandler, Fisher, or Drawer, Angler, Water-leaders, Beer-Brewers, Malt-makers, Fietchers, Bowyers, and Stringers; with the terms used in their several Arts, and Occupations explained.

And the Hutler, or Huxter, Gardiner, Flax-dresser, with the Ordering of Flax, and Hemp: And Weaver, Cooper, Masons, Stone-cutters, and Stone-getters Potters, Rope-makers, Printers, Barbers, and Hat-makers, with the several sorts of Hats; and terms of Art used in their Misteries or Trades.

An Astronomer, and Astrologer, how they Reckon the Sabbath days throughout the year; to know the moveable Feasts in the year, and the time of the English Kings Reign, with a Calendar of all the Saints days, Jewish Months, with Evil and Good days for any Employ in the year. Of Geometry, and the names of severall parcels of Lands: Of Arithmetick, and how the Jews, and Hebrews, Romans, Greeks, and Arabians, used to express numbers; of casting up Sum•• by Counters, with several terms taught in the Art of Numeration; with the Description of several Antient Philosophers.

Of the Painter, Graver, Etcher, Glass-painter, and Glasier; And Men famous for Invention, and improvers of Arts. The Musitianer, with several sorts of Musick, both of Voice, Strings, and Wind; with their Musical terms.

The Crate-carrier, Porter, Tinker, Sowgelder, Bedlam, Chimney-sweeper: with what Instruments and terms they use. Of the Witchman, or Salster, the Sailer, with his Terms of Navigation. The Begger, Cripple, and Vagabonds, with their Canting Terms; the Morrice-dancers, with the several Terms used in modest Dances.


Treateth of Holy, and Religious Persons, and Orders; as of our Saviour Jesus Christ’s Birth, Life, and Passion, Resurrection, and Ascention; the Jews High Priest, with the terms of his Vestments, and manner of Consecration. The Bishop, his Election and Consecration, as in the Romish Church. A Dean, a Mass-priest, Doctor of the Civil Law, with the names of their Ecclesiastical Vestments.

Of the Orders of Monks, Friers, and Jesuits, their Rules, receiving into Monasteries, and Consecrations: Of the Election of Abbots, and their Consecration, the several Officers in a Monastery; the Places in a Monastery, and their Priviledges. The Canons Secular, the degrees of Church Officers, their Vestments, and Consecrations; the Canons Regular, their Vestments, and Orders.

Of the Knights Templars, and Hospitallers, and their Rules: With other Ecclesiastical, or Spiritual Kts of several Orders, and manner of their Installing. Of Hermits and Friers of several Orders; with Pilgrims, or Palmers.

The Description of several Catholick Saints, and of what Countreys, and of what Trades they are Patrons. The Description of the four Evangelists, and twelve Apostles.

Of the Protestant Bishops, their Habit, Election, and Consecration: A Doctor of Divinities Habit, and how made a Doctor: a Minister or Parson, and a Deacon, how Ordained, and their Canonical Habits. A Master of Arts, and his Habit: Of Martyrs. Rhetorick, and Logick described, with some terms of Art used therein.

Also of a Lady Abbess, Nuns, and Religious Women of several Orders, and of their admission into the Nunnery, and Consecration, and Habit. The Description of several Women Saints, and of the seven Cardinal Virtues, and other Virtues. Also the Description of the seven Deadly Sins, with other Wickednesses. The Sibylls described: and Poverty.


Treateth of several sorts of Countrey Men and VVomen, as the Islander, Russian, Muscovian, Tartarian, Polander, Iew, Turk, Roman, Irish, Aegyptian, Chinensian, Arabian, English, French, Spanish, German, Britaine, Indian, Morocco, Brisilian, Virginian, &c. with their Habits, Religion, and Climate of the Countrey; the Description of the nine VVorthy VVomen. Apparel now used by VVomen.

Of a Queen, Lady, Virago, or an Amazon, a VVoman, and Maid, a Shepderdess. The Salutation, with its Honours described. Of VVrestling, and the terms used therein. Labour in Vain, with other Bearings both of Men and VVomen, both in Coats and Cognizances of Persons and Houses.

In the Additional Plate, is described more sorts of Crowns, also of some Hoods, Caps, and other Ornaments for the Head, with Garter, and Boots: which should have been incerted in chap. 1. Also to chap. 2. add some Variety of Sleeves, or Maunches, anciently and now in use.

Of the Description of the Liberal Art or Science of Grammar, with some terms belonging thereunto. Of the Merchant, with several terms about Weights, and Merchandize Goods; the Bricklayers Tools, and the terms used in their Trade.

The Billiard Play, and what terms they used therein; Chess Play, and its terms. Tennis Play, and terms used in that Exercise. The Slater, his Tools, and the terms for Slates. The Carter, and his Gee-wo terms.

The Thrower, or Turner, with their terms. Also certain Heads, and Faces, which should have been in chap 3. Of the Roper, and Upholsterer, their tools or working Instruments, with their several Parts and Members, how termed.


Treateth of all the Instruments of Huswifery, and Spinning of Wool, Flax, or Hemp, and Jarsey; with the Names of all the parts of the said Instruments. Also the Working Tools of a Weaver, Fuller, Sheerman, or Clothworker, Taylor, Harmaker, Shoomaker, Baker, Butcher, Cook, or Victualler, Cooper, Beer-brewer, and Water-carrier; with the parts of a Pump, and the several sorts of them.


Treateth of Smiths Tools, with several Iron-works made by them, their names, and terms for their several Parts, and Members. The Farriers, Spurriers, and Lorrillers Tools, and VVorks made by them: As also the Glasiers, Imbroiderers, Goldsmiths, and the Plummers … to work with. And Instruments of Punishment for offending persons, according to the degree of the crime.

In the Second Plate of this Chapter, is the description of some Tools of Trades omitted in the two former Chapters, viz. of the Butchers, Bakers, White-coopers, Beer-brewers, Smiths, Lock-smiths, Farriers, Spurriers, Lorrillers, Plummers, and Instruments for Punishment. Also some few things belonging to Husandry, omitted in the Subsequent Chapter 8.


Treateth of the Tools, and Instruments of Husbandry, as Plowing Reaping; also such as belong to the Dairy, Stable, Cow-house, and Pasture. The things about Water and Wind Mills. Tools belonging to a Bricklayer, Mason, Pavier, Slater, and Plasterer; of Chariots, Coaches, Sedans, Selas••s, and Horse-litters. Of the Saddle, with the terms belonging to each … of it, the several sorts of Saddles, with the Sadlers tools which he works withall.

In the Second Plate of this Chapter, is the description of some Tools omitted in Chap. 6. belonging to the VVeavers, Clothworkers, and Shoomakers: with a further Procession of Tradesmens Tools, as the Tanners, Fletchers, Curriers, Joyners, Carpenters and their Engines, for drawing of great Peeces; Turners in wood, Brass, Ivory, or with the Engine: the Dry •lover. And Geometrical Instruments, to be added to them in the next Chapter.


Treateth further of Joyners, and Carpenters Tools; and such as belong to the Limner, or Painter; the wet Glover, Stationer, and Book binder: Instruments for the measuring of Lands, with certaine terms given to several Geometrical Lines, and Cubical Bodies.

In the second Plate of this Chapter, is the Tools belonging to a Pewterer, Jeweller, and Lapidary; also the working Instruments of a Comb maker, Card maker, Glasier, Felt-maker, Needle-maker, Inkhorn-maker, and Lanthorn-maker.

In the third Plate of this Chapter, it treateth of the omission of some Tools belonging to Husbandry, and Millery; the Mason, Slater, Bricklaver, Plasterer, & Sadler, in Chapter 8. As also of som Chyrurgions Instruments, and Edifices, omitted in the following, Chapters. 10, 11, 12.


Treateth of the Roman, Saxon, German, High Dutch French, Italian, Spanish, Greek, and Hebrew Letters, with their Accents; with the ancient British Characters.

Of the Romans notes of Antiquity, and Numbers, and how expressed by Letters. Also the Breviation of VVords anciently used in old VVritings, explained.

In the Plate of Letters in this Chapter, placed folio. 416 a. It treateth of the Secretary, or mixt Letters; Chancery, or Sett Hand, and Court Hand writting, with the right Pronouncing of the English, Dutch, and French, &c. Letters. Also the Alphabets, of the Goths, Celts, Normans, Franks, Irish, Manks, Phoenice, Egypt, Turky, Ancient Greeks, Ethiopia, Phrigia, Illyrick, Slavonia, Croatick, Dalmatia, Israel, Samaria, Chaldia, Syriack, India, Sarjinia, Arminia, and Arabia, and how pronounced.


Treateth of the Instruments belonging to a Barber, and a Chyrurgion; with Vessels, and other usefull Instruments for Distillation, or Squeezing out of Oyls, and Liquors.


Is a Continuance of Chyrurgions Instruments: Also Instruments for Leger de main, or Art of Juggleing. And of Dweling places, as Huts, Tents, Tabernacles, Houses, Towers, Cities.


Is a Continuance of several Forms of Towers, Castles, VValls, Arches, Churches, Chappels, Cathedrals; with the Bells, Alters, Fonts, and other Utensils belonging to the Jewish and Christian Churches. VVith all the terms of Art given to all parts of a Pillar, according to the five Orders.

The second Plate of this Chapter, Treateth of some other sorts of Buildings of Towers, VValls, Pillars, and Castles. To which is added several sorts of Knots, and interlacing of Lines, and Fretting of Angles, with other Extravagant Things, found in Coats of Arms: which could not fitly be set under any head, or order; therefore as Heteroclites, are set by themselves.

Thus far have I with much Cost and Pains, caused to be Printed for the publick benefit; what remains (and is ready for the Press) is as followeth in the succeeding Contents: which if encouraged by Liberal and free Contributers, may appear in the World, else will sleep in the Bed of its Conception, and never see the Glorious Light of the Sun.



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Chronology of Lovecraft Stories and Call of Cthulhu Scenarios


  • No Man’s Land


  • The Haunting (Rulebook)
  • Late summer – The Spawn (The Great Old Ones)
  • Winter – Still Waters (The Great Old Ones)
  • December – Under the Boardwalk (Farewell my Sanity)


  • February- March – Tell Me, Have You Seen the Yellow Sign? (The Great Old Ones)
  • Summer – One in Darkness (The Great Old Ones)
  • Late – The Warren (Shadows of Yog Sothoth)


  • Captives of Two Worlds (H.P. Lovecraft’s Dreamlands)
  • Westchester House (The Asylum and other tales, Secrets of San Francisco, The Cthulhu Casebook)
  • The Pale God (The Great Old Ones)


  • The Color out of Space
  • January-March – Horror on the Orient Express [Campaign]
  • June 1st-6th The Half Moon (The Secrets of New York)
  • July 16—Rats in the Walls.
  • August 16 – An Enchanted Evening (Farewell my Sanity)
  • August 19- 24 – Horror’s Heart [Campaign]


  • The Old Damned House (Mansions of Madness)
  • January 12 — Shadows of Yog-Sothoth [Campaign] (Shadows of Yog Sothoth)


  • The Auction (The Asylum and other tales)
  • Slow Boat (Fearful Passages)
  • Armored Angels (Fearful Passages)
  • Mary (Before the Fall)
  • January — Masks of Nyarlathotep [Campaign]
  • February – The Crack’d and Crook’d Manse (Mansions of Madness)
  • February-April – The Call of Cthulhu
  • October 31 — Vile Bodies (The London Guidebook)
  • October 28th-November 3rd – Old Fellow that Bunyip (Terror Australis)
  • Soon after November 2nd – Pride of Yirrimburra (Terror Australis)


  • Tatterdemalion (Fatal Experiments)
  • Mid-year – Sleigh Ride (Fearful Passages)


  • In the Shadows of Death (In the Shadows)
  • Song of the Spheres (In the Shadows)
  • The Innsmouth Connection (Before the Fall)
  • Spring – Bad Moon Rising (The Great Old Ones)
  • March 15 — The Thing on the Threshold [Campaign]
  • May 2 — Spawn of Azathoth [Campaign]
  • July – The Shadow over Innsmouth.
  • Summer – Sept 22nd 1929 – Day of the Beast [Campaign]
  • October 15 — Devil’s Hole (In the Shadows)
  • Late October – Escape From Innsmouth (Escape From Innsmouth)
  • November 27-1928—The Whisperer in Darkness.


  • The Condemned (Arkham Unveiled)
  • A Restoration of Evil (Keeper’s Screen, 5.6E)
  • Edge of Darkness (Rulebook)
  • Early – Dark Rivals (Dead Reckonings)
  • January 27th-July 4th – The Shadow over Hollywood (Secrets of Lost Angeles)
  • February – The Raid on Innsmouth (Escape From Innsmouth)
  • April 15-17 – Behold the Mother (Dead Reckonings)
  • May 3 — A Little Knowledge (Arkham Unveiled)
  • June – Trail of Yig (Tales of the Miskatonic Valley)
  • Early Summer – Dead in the Water (Kingsport: The City in the Mists)
  • Summer – Dreams & Fancies (Kingsport: The City in the Mists)
  • August 1 – September 22 – The Dunwich Horror.
  • Late August – Dust to Dust (Dead Reckonings)
  • August 26th-30th – Regiment of Dread (Tales of the Miskatonic Valley)
  • Fall – Dead of Night (Arkham Unveiled)
  • October 13-15 – The Curse of Anubis (Taint of Madness)
  • October – November – Fade to Gray (Tales of the Miskatonic Valley)
  • October 17- January 1930 – Tatters of the King [Campaign]
  • Between November and September 1929 – Return to Dunwich
  • Late – The Mauretania (The Asylum and other tales)


  • A Painted Smile (Tales of the Miskatonic Valley)
  • Late Summer/Early Autumn – The Watcher in the Valley (Tales of the Miskatonic Valley)
  • October 31 – January 15, 1930 – With Malice Aforethought (Adventures in Arkham Country)



  • Madness of the Ancestors (Secrets of Kenya)
  • November 6 — King of Chicago (King of Chicago)



  • The Lost Temple of Yig (D20 Gamemaster’s Pack)
  • September 1 – January 29 1934 – Beyond the Mountains of Madness [Campaign]


  • Between 1934 and 1937 – The Pits of Bendal-Dolum (Terror from the Stars)


  • The Shadow Out of Time

Early 1920s

  • Secrets of the Congo

No Date Given

  • Old Acquaintance (Before the Fall)
  • The Occulted Light (Before the Fall)
  • Fear of Flying (Fearful Passages)
  • The Iron Ghost (Fearful Passages)
  • Rigid Air (Fearful Passages)
  • Along the indus (Fearful Passages)
  • The Curse of Chaugnar Faugn (Curse of the Cthonians)
  • The City Without a Name (Curse of the Cthonians)
  • The Asylum (The Asylum and other tales)
  • The Madman (The Asylum and other tales)
  • Black Devil Mountain (The Asylum and other tales)
  • Cats of Lamu (Secrets of Kenya)
  • Savage Lands (Secrets of Kenya)
  • Wooden Death (Secrets of Kenya)
  • The Horror of the Glen (Green and Pleasant Land)
  • Death in the Post (Green and Pleasant Land)
  • Hills Rise Wild (Arkham Unveiled)
  • The Trail of Tsathoggua [Campaign]
  • Corbitt (Mansions of Madness)
  • The Plantation (Mansions of Madness)
  • Mansion of Madness (Mansions of Madness)
  • Closed Casket (Secrets)
  • A Love in Need (Secrets)
  • The Unsealed Room (Secrets)
  • A Cult of One (Secrets)
  • Serendipity (Minions)
  • Six Foot Plot (Minions)
  • Terrible Head (Minions)
  • Lost Property (Minions)
  • Circle of Friends (Minions)
  • Ghost Net (Minions)
  • Painted in a Corner (Minions)
  • Where Satan Fell (Minions)
  • Mouthbreathers (Minions)
  • Horror Man (Minions)
  • Stone Shifter (Minions)
  • Crab Canon (Minions)
  • Lazy Eye (Minions)
  • Watering Hole (Minions)
  • Transgression (The Secrets of New York)
  • Pickman’s Student (H.P. Lovecraft’s Dreamlands)
  • The Lemon Sails (H.P. Lovecraft’s Dreamlands)
  • To Sleep, Perchance to Dream (H.P. Lovecraft’s Dreamlands)
  • The Whore of Barharna (Adventures in Arkham Country)
  • Bless the Beasts and Children (Adventures in Arkham Country)
  • The Dark Woods (Adventures in Arkham Country)
  • The Secret of Marseilles (King of Chicago)
  • Paper Chase (Cthulhu Companion)
  • The Mystery of Loch Feinn (Cthulhu Companion)
  • The Songs of Fantari (Fatal Experiments)
  • The Colour of His Eyes (Secrets of San Francisco)
  • Beyond the Edges (Secrets of San Francisco)
  • Freak Show (Tales of the Miskatonic Valley)
  • City Beneath the Sands (Terror Australis)
  • House on the Edge (Kingsport: The City in the Mists)
  • To Wake, Perchance to Dream (Taint of Madness)
  • Turnabout (Taint of Madness)
  • The Haunter of the Dark.
  • The Thing on the Doorstep.
  • Dreams in the Witch House.

No Year Given

  • After 1921 – Blackness Beneath (Secrets of Lost Angeles)
  • Pre-1923 – Shadow over Darkbank (Green and Pleasant Land)
  • January — Twilight of the Fifth Sun Secrets of New Orleans)
  • February 12 — Black Devil Mountain (The Asylum and other tales)
  • February 12- 14 — The Land of Lost Dreams (H.P. Lovecraft’s Dreamlands)
  • March 3 — A Happy Family (Adventures in Arkham Country)
  • March 10 — The Lurker in the Crypt (Fatal Experiments)
  • April 26-30 – Season of the Witch (H.P. Lovecraft’s Dreamlands)
  • May — Furious Driving (Fearful Passages)
  • May 5 — Crash Dive (Fearful Passages)
  • Begins after May 23 — Dark Carnival (Curse of the Cthonians)
  • June 11 — The Rescue (Cthulhu Companion)
  • June 12- July 12 – Gate from the Past (The Asylum and other tales)
  • June – People of the Monolith (Shadows of Yog Sothoth)
  • July 28 — The Last of Joy (Minions)
  • September 23rd — The Temple of the Moon (Terror from the Stars)
  • October 1 — The Secret of Castronegro (Cthulhu Companion)
  • November — The Ferry Ride (Secrets of San Francisco)
  • November 23 — Thoth’s Dagger (Curse of the Cthonians)





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John Bagford Manuscripts

As we wander afield it can be interesting, at least to me to examine some of the minutia that can bog down research – especially in obscure fields, like the history of shoemaking.

John Bagford (1650/1-1716) was an antiquarian, author, book-dealer, bibliographer, and manuscript collector.  He may also have had his start as a shoemaker by the Great Turnstile (An alley between High Holburn and Lincoln’s Inn Fields in London).  If so he appears to have tired of that and changed professions around 1686.

One of the things he is best known for was gathering together a large number of collections of books and manuscripts.  Among those he helped to build were the collections of Robert Harley, Hans Sloan and Sir Robert Cotton; which is to say – much of the core of the British Museum library.  Unfortunately he was also the target of a lot of negative commentary, mostly due to his overall lack of education and the collections he built for himself of title-pages of books — according to legend, he was known to visit the homes of the great and the good, and if he found books whose pages he lacked, he’d remove those pages and take them with him.  Whether this is true, or slander laid against him can be debated endlessly.

He was well known to have been a good man without pretense (according to Thomas Rawlinson) and highly learned if not formally educated.

In the Harleian Manuscripts he left a short handwritten piece about shoemaking.  Curiously there is some debate as to what manuscript this is in.

In Nichols, John.  Literary anecdotes of the eighteenth century; comprizing biographical memoirs of William Bowyer, printer, F.S.A., and many of his learned friends; an incidental view of the progress and advancement of literature in this kingdom during the last century; and biographical anecdotes of a considerable number of eminent writers and ingenious artists; with a very copious index. Vol. 2 1812. Pp. 462-463 it is said that Bagford acknowledged “that he practised, or had practised, “the gentle craft,” as he calls it, in a little curious and entertaining tract on the fashions of shoes, &c. and the art of making them, which may be seen in the British Museum, Harl. MSS. 5911.”


According to the Transactions of the Bibliographical Society, v. 7, p. 158.  Harl. 5911 is “Letters by Wanley. Petition to University for leave to examine bindings and remove fragments.   Collections regarding libraries, MSS, etc. A History of Shoemaking, f. 92. Magnet.  Account of Barlow 110.

Also listed, pg. 159. “Harl. 5981. Collections for a history of shoemaking.”

Looks promising.

The Catalogue of the Harleian Manuscripts in the British Museum, v. 3, p. 309, lists

“5911.  A thin volume containing very various matters;

  1. A Letter from Mr. H. Wanley, dated Aug. 11, 1697, to some Rev* person, respecting his own Collections towards a history of the Origin and Progress of Writing.
  2. Remarks, by the same, on travels, and directions for examining foreign Libraries, with the approbation of several learned Men.
  3. Lift of Books to be enquired for in the public Library at Cambridge. By the same.
  4. Remarks on Saxon coins, by the same.
  5. A declamation, “Privata publicæ Vi æ est anteferenda” in English. In a different hand.
  6. Catalogue of Dr. Bernard’s Books and Manuscripts.
  7. Proposal by H. Wanley for collecting old external leaves of MSS. &c. followed by other matters by him.
  8. Abstract of the will of King Henry VIII.
  9. Various lists and titles of Books.
  10. Account of a perfect collection of Books and MSS. begun in 1640 by order of Charles I. This is in MS. and in print, followed by various unconnected papers, chiefly relating to books.”


“5979-5981 In reference to Printing, in MS, 3 Vol. very undigested.”


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Measurement in the Middle Ages

Originally, the Imperial system of Measurement was based on that used in the Roman Empire, and during that time, all were standardized. After the collapse of the Empire, the definitions of the measurements began to wander a bit until by the 18th C, they were completely different in different countrys and often different in separate regions of the same country.

Such was the situation in France at the time of the Revolution, and it was the need for a new standard that brought about the introduction of the Metric System. Eventually other countries adopted this new standard as well. It should be noted that in the century since its adoption, the length of the meter has been redefined a number of times until a standard that was based on a real figure could be rationalized (I believe it’s currently something like “the distance that light travels in 1.2 x 10^-9 seconds”).

I’ll define the major units first:

Foot The length of a man’s foot. A measure of length. From town to town, country to country, this measurement could differ, but as a rule a French Pied was equal to 12.8 English inches, while a Spanish Pie was 10.96 English inches
Gallon An English measure of capacity. The imperial gallon contains 27714 cubic inches: the winegallon of 231 cubic inches is the standard in the United States.
Pound A measure of weight and mass derived from the ancient Roman libra (which is equal to 327.25 grams), but this ancient standard has been modified variously over the course of time, and in different countries. The pound consisted originally of 12 ounces, corresponding more or less to that of troy weight. This is still used by goldsmiths and jewellers in stating the weight of gold, silver, and precious stones; but as early as the thirteenth or fourteenth century a pound of sixteen ounces was used for more bulky commodities. This was made a standard for general purposes of trade by Edward III, and known as the pound aveir de peis, i.e. of merchandise of weight, now called avoirdupois, q.v. At other times the pound has varied locally from 12 to 27 ounces, according to the commodity, pounds of different weight being often used in the same place for different articles, as bread, butter, cheese, meat, malt, hay, wool, etc.

  1. A measure of capacity for liquids (also for corn and other dry substances of powdery or granular nature), equal to half a quart or 1/8 of a gallon; of varying content at different times and places.
  2. A vessel holding a definite quantity (usually four ounces), used to receive the blood in blood-letting.
Dram A weight, orig. the ancient Greek drachma; hence, in Apothecaries’ weight, a weight of 60 grains =
1/8 of an ounce; in Avoirdupois weight, of 27.13 grains = 1/16 of an ounce; = drachm
Ell From the Latin “Ulna”. A unit of linear measure equal to 45 inches. The word ell seems to have been variously taken to represent the distance from the elbow or from the shoulder to the wrist or to the finger-tips, while in some cases a “double ell” has superseded the original measure, and has taken its name. English ell = 45 in. Scots = 37.2 in. Flemish = 27 in.
  1. (UK and historically) A unit of linear measure equal to the breadth of a finger, or about 3/4 inch.
  2. (US) A unit of linear measure equal to the length of a finger, or about 4 1/2 inches.
Furlong Originally the distance an Ox could pull a plow before needing to rest, ie., “a furrow long”. As early as the 9th c. it was regarded as the equivalent of the Roman stadium, which was 18 of a Roman mile; and hence furlong has always been used as a name for the eighth part of an English mile, whether this coincided with the agricultural measure so called or not. The present statute furlong is 220 yards, and is equal both to the eighth part of a statute mile, and to the side of a square of 10 statute acres.
  1. A measure for liquids, containing one fourth of a standard pint.
  2. In many districts the gill is equivalent to a half-pint, the quarter-pint being called a jack.
Grain The weight of 1 Barleycorn (or one grain of Barley)
Hand A unit of linear measure, formerly taken as equal to three inches, but now to four; a palm, a  hand-breadth. Now used only in giving the height of horses and the like.
Inch From the Latin “Uncia” (or a twelfth part), an inch is 1/12 Foot. A measure of length. In French, the unit of 1/12 a “foot” is the Pounce. In Spanish, Pulgadas. nb. A 12th of a Pounce is a Ligne, and a 12th of a Pulgadas is a Lignas. English inches are traditionally divided into 12 Lines. English inches are also defined as being the length of “Three good sized barleycorns
placed end to end”.
League An itinerary measure of distance, varying in different countries, but usually estimated roughly at about 3 miles; app. never in regular use in England, but often occurring in poetical or rhetorical statements of distance. Although the league appears never to have been an English measure, leuca occurs somewhat frequently in Anglo-Latin law-books (Bracton, Fleta, etc.); it is disputed whether in these works it means one mile or two.
Mark A denomination of weight formerly employed (chiefly for gold and silver) throughout western Europe; its actual weight varied considerably, but it was usually regarded as equivalent to 8 ounces (= either 23 or 12 of a pound, according to the meaning given to the latter term).
Mile Originally, the Roman lineal measure of 1,000 paces (mille passus or passuum), computed to have been about 1,618 yards. Hence, the unit of measure derived from this, used in the British Isles and in other English-speaking countries. Its length has varied considerably at different periods and in different localities, chiefly owing to the influence of the agricultural system of measures with which the mile has been brought into relation (see furlong). The legal mile in Britain and the U.S. is now 1,760 yards (5280 feet). The Irish mile of 2,240 yards is still in rustic use. The obsolete Scottish mile was longer than the English, and probably varied according to time and place; one of the values given for it is 1,976 yards.
  1. A measure of weight for wool, beef, etc., usually equal to eight pounds =clove
  2. A measure of land.
  3. A measure of length for cloth; 2.14 inches, or the 1/16th part of a yard. “The precise origin of this sense is not clear. The use of the nail in early examples suggests that one sixteenth from the end of the yard-stick may have been marked by a nail.” (OED)
Ounce From the Latin “Uncia” (or a twelfth part), an ounce is 1/12 Pound (or was originally, and is still in “troy” weight). A measurement of weight.
Pace A vague measure of distance with two widely differing definitions:

  1. Historically, the distance between successive stationary positions of the same foot or two “Steps”, or about 5 feet (60 inches).
  2. The distance from where one foot is set down to where the other is set down, or about 2 1/2 feet (30 inches).
Pint A measure of capacity for liquids (also for corn and other dry substances of powdery or granular nature), equal to 1/2 a quart or 1/8 of a gallon; of varying content at different times and places.
  1. English. The pint is equal to 34.66 cubic inches.
  2. (US) The standard pint is that of the old wine measure, equal to 28.78 cubic inches.
  3. The old Scotch pint was equal to about 3 imperial pints (104.2 cubic inches).
  4. In local use also a weight, e.g. of butter in East Anglia = 1 1/4lb.
Pound, Merchantile (16 “Tower” oz.) is different from the Avoirdepois Pound (of 16 Avoirdepois oz), being a ratio of 36 Mercantile Pounds to 35 Avoirdepois Pounds
Pound, Tower (12 “tower” oz.) used as a standard from Ethelred until Henry VIII abolished it in favor of the Troy Pound.
Quart An English measure of capacity, one-fourth of a gallon, or two pints
Sack of Wool Defined by Edward III to be equal to the weight of 26 times the Big Rock used to measure the “Aveir de peis” weight. That specific rock, or “Stone” weighed (at that time 14 pounds) (n.b., a sack of wool was equal in weight to 1/6th a cartload of  lead) or 364 pounds aveir de peis.
Span Generally the distance from the tip of the thumb to the tip of the little finger, or sometimes to the tip of the forefinger, when the hand is fully extended; the space equivalent to this taken as a measure of length, averaging nine inches.
Ton, or tun A unit used in measuring the carrying capacity or burden of a ship, the amount of cargo, freight, etc.

  1. Originally, the space occupied by a tun cask of wine.
  2. For the purposes of registered tonnage, the space of 100 cubic feet.
  3. For purposes of freight, usually the space of 40 cubic feet, unless that bulk would weigh more than 20 cwt., in which case freight is charged by weight. But the expression “ton of cargo” is also used with regard to special packages which are conventionally assumed as going so many packages to the ton.
  4. 20 cu feet of timber.
  1. A unit of linear measure equal to equal to 3 feet or 36 inches. Also the corresponding measure of area (square yard = 9 square feet) or of solidity (cubic yard = 27 cubic feet). Also called a Verge.
    NOT to be confused with:
  2. A unit of linear measure equal to 16 1/2 feet or 5 1/2 yards (but varying locally); AKA rod, pole, or perch. Sometimes distinguished as land-yard.


1 Grain (1/7000th Lb Avoirdupois) =0.0648 grams
1 Pennyweight (i.e. the weight of one Anglo-Saxon/Carolingian penny) = 1.3 grams
1 Penny Weight = 1.55 grams
1 Dram (1/16 Oz Avoirdupois) = 1.77 grams
1 Dram (1/8 of an ounce Troy) = 3.89 grams
1 Shilling = 18.67 grams
1 Ore (Anglo-Danish) = 20.8 grams
1 Ore (Anglo-Saxon) = 23.3 grams (or 24.88)
1 “Uncia” = 27.2 grams
1 Ounce (Avoirdupois) = 28.4 grams
1 Ounce (Tower) = 29.2 grams
1 Once (French) = 30.6 grams
1 Ounce (“Scotch Troy”) = 30.8 grams
1 Ounce (Troy) = 31.1 grams
1 “Tron” Ounce (Edinburgh/Scots) = 38.97 grams
1 Mark (determined from the weight of the Anglo-Saxon penny) =166.4 grams
1 Mark (Anglo-Saxon?) = 226.8 grams
1 Mark (French) = 245 grams
1 Pound (determined from the weight of the Anglo-Saxon penny) =312 grams
1 Pound (Italian – low end) = 300 grams
1 Roman Libre (12 Unciae) = 326 grams
1 Pound (12 Tower Ounces) = 349.9 grams
1 Pound (Italian – high end) = 350 grams
1 “Livre de Charlemagne” (12 Onces) = 367.5 grams
1 Pound (12 Troy Ounces) = 373.25 grams
1 Pound (16 Avoirdupois Ounces) = 453.6 grams
1 Pound (Hapsburg? low end) = 459 grams
1 Pound (Mercantile; 16 Tower Oz.) = 466.6 grams
1 Pound (Hapsburg? high end) = 469 grams
1 Livre (French; 16 Onces) = 490 grams
1 Pound (“Scotch”; 16 “Troy Oz”) = 493.1 grams
1 Pound (“Dutch”; 16 Troy Ounces) = 497.6 grams
1 Pfund (Modern) = 500 grams
1 ? Pound (1/100 Hundredweight) = 508 grams
1 Pint (East Anglia) =567 grams
1 “Tron” Pound (Edinburgh/Scots) = 623.5 grams
1 Mark (English) = 746.6 grams
1 Clove (7 pounds Avoirdupois) = 3175.2 grams (3.2 kg)
1 Nail or Clove (8 pounds Avoirdupois) =3628.8 grams (3.6 kg)
1 Stone (12 Mercantile (listed in 1303)) = 5599.2 grams (5.6 kg)
1 Stone (14 pounds Avoirdupois) = 6350.4 grams (6.4 kg)
1 “Quarter” weight = 12700.4 grams (12.7 kg)
1 Fotmal (72 lbs Avoirdupois) = 32659.2 grams (32.7 kg)
1 (“Quarter Sack”) = 41277.6 grams (41.3 kg)
1 “Hundredweight” = 50803.2 grams (50.8 kg)
1 Sack (???) = 163296 grams (163 kg)
1 Sack (Wool) = 165110 grams (165 kg)
1 Ton (2000 lbs Avoirdupois) = 907200 grams (907 kg)
1 “Cartload of lead” = 979776 grams (980 kg)
1 “Ton” (2240 lbs Avoirdupois) = 1016064 grams (1016 kg)


  • Jones, Stacy V. Weights and Measures: An Informal Guide. Washington, D.C.: Public Affairs Press, 1963.
  • Woolhouse, Wesley Stoker Barker. Historical, Measures, Weights, Calendars & Moneys of All Nations and an Analysis of the Christian, Hebrew and Muhammadan Calendars (with Tables up to 2000 A.D.). Chicago: Ares Publishers, 1979.
  • Zupko, Ronald Edward. A Dictionary of English Weights and Measures: From Anglo-Saxon Times to the Nineteenth Century. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1968.
  • Zupko, Ronald Edward. French Weights and Measures before the Revolution a Dictionary of Provincial and Local Units. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1978.
  • Zupko, Ronald Edward. Italian Weights and Measures from the Middle Ages to the Nineteenth Century Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society, 145. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1981.
  • Zupko, Ronald Edward. A Dictionary of Weights and Measures for the British Isles the Middle Ages to the Twentieth Century Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society, 168. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1985.
  • Zupko, Ronald Edward. Revolution in Measurement Western European Weights and Measures since the Age of Science Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society, 186. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1990.
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Annoying tempting similarities

riot162You know you are spending too much time on a topic when you start seeing things.

This young man kindly took his time out from shooting, looting and burning to have his picture taken in front of the ruins of the Dreamland Theater on Greenwood, late morning of 1 June 1921.

The more I look at him, the more I think he looks like this guy:


This would be Fred Barker, youngest son of the Barker Family, one of the founders of the Barker-Karpis gang in the early 1930s.  Fred was 19 and a half in June, 1921.  He and his brothers were members of the Central Park Gang in Tulsa.  He was first imprisoned in 1927 for burglary.  After teaming up with Karpis in 1930, he escalated to bank robbery, kidnapping, and murder.

The annoying part is that Fred was actually in Tulsa during the riot and could well have been involved.

Sadly, no way to prove it.

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Tales of the Gold Monkey

One of the things I like to research is internal continuity of series (television, literary, what have you).  Recently I ran across a set of Tales of the Gold Monkey episodes.  If you are unfamiliar with this series, it was a fun bit that aired in the 1983-84 TV season on ABC.  It was created and produced by Donald P. Bellisario, who also brought us Magnum P.I., Quantum Leap, Airwolf, JAG, First Monday, and NCIS.  I should note that as I am about to be dissecting a Bellisario production for internal continuity, I should note that he is also the namesake of Bellisario’s Maxim ( ), which can be shortened to ‘don’t sweat the details; it’s just a TV show.’

That being said, I will say that if you worry about such things as historical accuracy and internal continuity Gold Monkey is a seriously fun program but it’s also a hot mess internally.  So, if you don’t care, move on.  If you might be interested, let me present the

TIME LINE of the Tales of the Gold Monkey
Compiled by I. Marc Carlson

Since all of this information came from other sources, I really don’t feel like I can copyright it. Feel free to use it as you wish. If you like the occasional hypothesis herein all I ask is that you remember where you got it.

Note on sources:

The sources used for this were the episodes, and

Those items marked with an (*) are conjectural, based on the information on hand, and may be further explained by a description in brackets. An item marked by an asterisk within the brackets with the text indicates something constructed with the information on hand, as well as guesswork.  Italics indicate real world information.

The dates are predicated initially on those two various sets founds in the series bible described on, and trying to find a workable marriage.


  • 25th of ?  Jake Cutter was born the bastard son of a famous aviation pioneer who by 1938 owned a large aircraft corporation in San Diego, and taught at Cornell.   His father never acknowledged him.  His mother, deceased, was a famous Broadway actress. He has an aunt, Nellie.


  •  Jake discovers the novels of Adventurer and Pilot Heywood Floyd.


  • Jake attended Cornell.  His father was a teacher there.


  • Jake was engaged to Elizabeth, a beautiful East Coast socialite whose parents stopped the wedding when they discovered Jake’s parentage.


  • Jake played Double A Baseball for the Duluth Dukes until his arm froze up.


  • Jake joined the Army and flew for the U.S. Army Air Corps.  He is taught to fly by Robby Harrington and his daughter Brigit.


  • Jake flew the airmail for the Army all around the States and particularly in the Alleghenies.  During this period Jake and Brigit went to Mozambique.  Jake may have acquired Jack the Dog about this time, since Jack knows Brigit.


  • After leaving the army, Jake went barnstorming and flying cargo mostly in Central and South America.


  • Jack may have been born about this time, depending on the sources.


  • *Pan Pacific Clipper Service began in South America [Pan Am Clipper Service began.  Pan Pacific is a stand in for Pan Am]


  • Jake was a Clipper Co-pilot and Pilot, mostly in South America.


  • Met Corky, best mechanic for Pan Am. [The episode says 1935]
  • Ferried Llamas from Lima to La Paz with Corky.
  • At some point Corky was sick in Natal.


  • May  P-36 Hawk first flown.


  • Jake bought Jack’s eye for a couple of hundred dollars when flying gold out of Peru.
  • July  Spanish Civil War Begins.


  • July The Spanish Civil War begins.
  • Jake flew for the Republicans in Spain.  [Ok, this is the first of the major issues in the timeline.  The XV International Brigade, the “Abraham Lincoln Brigade” was formed in January 1937, and this would badly overlap the time Jake is known to have been in China.  So clearly he served as a mercenary much earlier in 1936.]
  • October. Clipper Service across the Pacific occurs.  [Based on Pan Am.]


  • In Cairo, Professor White is killed.
  • *February/March  Jake and Corky start flying for the Tigers in China.  Jake was possibly recruited from the Spanish Republicans.  They flew in China for the Tigers with Randall McGraw and Gandy Dancer among others.  [Clearly the Chinese invaded earlier in this universe (as well as several planes were used earlier). Jake was over Chunking in December, and elsewhere they discuss having lost 7 pilots (including Whitaker, Lindstrom, Martinelli, Burns) in 11 months.]
  • *May [Presumably this is about when Jake and Corky saw a man-eating tiger in Djakarta during the monsoon, which usually takes place in May in Indonesia.]
  • May 29  The first flight of the prototype Grumman G-21 Goose.
  • July  Japanese invade China in our world.
  • August  Chenault serves as an advisor to the Chinese in our world.
  • Jake and the Tigers fight the Japanese over Shanghai
  • Randall McGraw almost got Jake killed over Nanking. (In our world, the Nanking Massacre is December 1937)
  • December  Fighting Japanese over Chunking.
  • Over the Youn Lou Highland, Jake is attacked by two ‘Zekes’, and becomes an Ace.  He’s credited with five Japanese aircraft and two probables.


  • *December/January  Jake was badly wounded (hit in the leg over Nankow [Nankow Pass is north of Beijing]) and sent back to Hawaii to recover. On the way, he and Corky heard of a Grumman Goose that had crashed in the Solomon’s while being ferried to Australia from Hawaii. They found it, claimed salvage, and repaired it.  They also say they paid $5000 for it, but that may just have been repair costs.


  •  Jake, Corky and Jack are in Boragora in the French Marivellas.
  • March  James Kramer started with the Tigers
  • April  Ferrying nuns to a Leper Colony.
  • *June?  Pilot – Sarah Stipney White arrives in the Marivellas.  The adventure to Baku, searching for the Golden Monkey cast by the Tsing-Tsing monks.  A volcanic eruption.
  • *June?  Shanghaied – Corky is kidnapped and meets Mud People.
  • *June?  Black Pearl—The Nazis are trying to build an atomic bomb near Trou Dans la Mer.  Johnny Kimbel, US Agent appears.
  • *July?  Legends Are Forever –Gandy Dancer searches for King Solomon’s Mines in the South Pacific. Fortunately there are Watusis.
  • July 14  Ape Boy—On the way to a Bastille Day celebration, Jake, et al, crash on Bokatari and find a boy raised by apes.
  • *July?  Escape from Death Island—In prison.
  • *August?  Trunk from the Past—A trunk arrives for Sarah, and it turns out there is an ancient Egyptian Cult in the Marivellas.
  • *August?  Once a Tiger—Meet up with two Tigers and a Cargo Cult.
  • *August?  Honor Thy Brother—Jake is hunted by a Japanese fighter pilot.
  • *September?  The Lady and the Tiger—Amish on a Japanese Held island.
  • *September?  The Sultan of Swat—Baseball in the Marivellas.
  • *September?  God Save the Queen—An attempt to blow up the luxury liner, the Queen Victoria.
  • *October? High Stakes Lady—More Spies.
  • *October? Force of Habit—Brigit returns as a nun.
  • *October? Cooked Goose—Honeymoon kidnapping.
  • October P-40 Warhawk is first flown.
  • November  The Late Sarah White—Sarah’s been in the Philippines for a month.  The date is mentioned.
  • *November? Last Chance Louie—Louie is convicted for murder.
  • *November? Naka Jima Kill—Someone tries to assassinate the Japanese Defense Minister
  • *December? Boragora or Bust—Platinum rush on BoraGora.
  • *December? Mourning Becomes Matuka—Murder of Princess Koji.
  • *December? A Distant Shout of Thunder—Volcano on BoraGora.
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Osage Indian Murders – A (non-exhaustive) bibliography

Thanks to the recent publication of Killers of the Flower Moon: the Osage murders and the birth of the FBI by David Grann (Doubleday 2017), I thought I’d go ahead and share some of the other previously published books, novels, videos, and other resources that have dealt with these murders, if people want to really explore these events.

Burns, Louis. In A History of the Osage People., 439–442. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1989.

Curtis, Gene. “ ’Reign of Terror Kills Osage Family.” Tulsa World, November 26, 2006.

Fixico, Donald Lee. The Invasion of Indian Country in the Twentieth Century : American Capitalism and Tribal Natural Resources. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado, 1998.

Franks, Kenny A. The Osage Oil Boom. Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Heritage Association, 1989.

Grann, David. Killers of the Flower Moon: The Osage Murders and the Birth of the FBI . New York: Doubleday, 2017.

Grove, Fred. Drums without Warriors. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1976.

———. Flame of the Osage. New York: Pyramid Books, 1958.

———. The Years of Fear: A Western Story. Waterville, ME: Five Star., 2001.

———. Warrior Road. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1974.

Hogan, Lawrence J. The Osage Indian Murders: The True Story of a Multiple Murder Plot to Acquire the Estates of Wealthy Osage Tribe Members. Frederick, MD: Amlex, 1998.

Hogan, Linda. Mean Spirit. New York: Ivy Books, 1992.

Holm, Tom. Osage Rose. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2008.

Howell, Melissa. “The Reign of Terror.” NewsOK, January 12, 2014.

Hunt, John Clinton. The Grey Horse Legacy. New York: Knopf, 1968.

Larner, John William. FBI File on the Osage Indian Murders. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 1986.

Mathews, John Joseph. Sundown. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1988.

McAuliffe, Dennis. Bloodland: A Family Story of Oil, Greed and Murder on the Osage Reservation. San Francisco: Council Oak Books, 1994.

———. The Deaths of Sybil Bolton: An American History . New York: Times Books, 1994.

Meyer, Jon ’a, and Gloria Bogdan. “Co-Habitation and Co-Optation: Some Intersections between Native American and Euroamerican Legal Systems in the Nineteenth Century.” The American Transcendental Quarterly 15, no. 4 (n.d.): 257–75.

Murdered Native Americans: Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse, Anna Mae Aquash, James Vann, Elias Boudinot, Chief Pontiac, Cornstalk, Little Crow, Major Ridge, Chief Niwot, Red Shoes, Opchanacanough, Black Kettle, Spotted Tail, John Ridge, Spotted Elk, Mangas Coloradas, Conquering Bear, William Mcintosh, Osage Indian Murders. Memphis, TN: Book, LLC, 2010.

Osage Tribal Murders. DVD. S.l.: Ball entertainment, 2010.

“The Osage Murders.” G-Men. NBC, August 3, 1935.

Underhill, Lonnie E. The Osage Indian Reign of Terror: The Violence of Bill Hale, 1921-1923. Gilbert, AZ: Roan Horse Press, 2010.

“Wahzhazhe (Ballet).” n.d.


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Ten Little Zeppelins

There was a fun little song recorded in 1917 recording by Harry Bluff[1]


Ten little zeppelins passing out the [stork]
‘What a treat for England’ said the Kaiser with a lark
As the crew was singing The Watch Upon the Rhine
One met an airman and then there were nine.

Nine little zeppelins sailed along with glee
Just to prove the North Sea belonged to Germany
We’ll strike a blow at London and sing this song of hate
But one struck a lighting [pipe] and then there were eight.

Eight little zeppelins their bravery to show
Were also busy dodging enemies below
Never saw the aeroplane climbing up to heaven
Till he dropped his little bomb and then there seven.

Seven little zeppelins gayly taking wing
Found a lot of search lights ‘round them in a ring
Thought that Woolrich Arsenal this time they’d surely fix
But one cannon with a cannonball and then there were six.

Six little zeppelins felt the Kaiser’s wroth
Hoped to peddle something, had to sally forth
But before their time in England to arrive
One settled in the ocean and then there were five.

Five little zeppelins going back to roost
Met a little stranger who’d not been introduced.
And before their time to murmer ‘wait and see’
Or even say ‘Jack Robinson’ then there were three.

Three little zeppelins you know just what they are
Said to our ambition there’d never be a bar
One went to Cuffley and very soon was done
And another went to Potter’s Bar and that left one.

One little zeppelin dropped a bomb and then
Felt he’d settle London and fight a million men
Off to get the Iron Cross quickly took his hoof
But broke his back at Dunkirk and now we’ll close the book.

Ten brand new zeps have gone to rest
On land or in the sea
The crew all swell quite safe in – well
The place where they ought to be.

An interesting bit of propaganda, but not exactly accurate.

The German raids in England began in 1914, and a number of airships were lost over time.  It is tricky trying to match the airships to the real losses.

10. ?
9. ?
8.  May be the LZ37, by R.A.J. Warneford who bombed the airship as it was returning to its base in Belgium. 7 June 1915.[2]
7. A Zeppelin was fired upon at Woolrich in September 1916[3] This could be the L33, brought down by cannon fire from Beckton, Wanstead, or Victoria Park. It came down reasonably intact north of the Blackwater Estuary.[4]
6. The L12 and L19 both came down in the sea.
5/3. Uncertain although Leefe Robinson brought down the SL-11, however it was brought down by Cuffley.
3. The L31 was brought down at Patters Bar by Wulstan Tempest 1 Oct 1916
1. ?






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