Early Tulsa, part 3

oldtulsaI’ve been piecing together a map of early Tulsa properties.  This version shows some of the locations of Main Street and the early pre-statehood land.  Interestingly the streets and buildings were on A.T. Hodges allotment before that land was allotted.

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Schütte-Lanz SL 11, revisited

(Edit note:  I have made some edits based on further discussion with Ian Castle.  These will be noted with an asterisk)

Last week, I received a comment on my last post about the Schütte-Lanz SL 11, the airship shot down over Cuffley in September 1916.  This comment was from Ian Castle, an author who has studied the dirigibles over Britain in World War One far more than I have, and published several books about them.  His website on this topic is at http://www.iancastlezeppelin.co.uk/.  He was commenting to correct an attribution on an image of an airship in the collection of The Department of Special Collections, McFarlin Library, The University of Tulsa as not being the SL-11 (eleven*), but rather the SL-II (two*).   As we conversed further, he suggested that the images taken by Orr might in fact be a mock-up, rather than the actual airship being shot down.

I should be clear — these images have been presented for a century as being ‘real,’ actual photographs of the SL-11.  Orr has been noted by scholars for having been one of the first photographers to document aerial warfare.

12Castle’s reasons for thinking these were not actual images of the SL-11* were fairly straight-forward, and based on these images from the series:

 

 

 

His technical questions were similar to some I have had such as how could these photos have been taken with the technology of the time?  He also had more practical questions about how could the photographer have gotten there in time to take the pictures since the SL-11 was shot down at 2 in the morning, many miles away from the photographer’s home.

So as we’ve been talking about this, I’ve been doing the photographic forensics thing, and he’s been walking through the history of the airship.  We have an answer now, and since one of the things I do in this blog is the forensics of photography,  I can walk folks through the process.

However, the tl;dr (too long, didn’t read; i.e. executive summary) answer is these six images are in fact mock-ups absolutely.


Location:

cuffleyThis image shows the relative positions of Orr’s shop and Cuffley.  According to Mr. Castle, “The first AA guns at Finsbury Park* opened fire at about 2.00am, about 4 miles from the very centre of London. By 2.25am SL 11 was a flaming mass over Cuffley, about 13 miles from Finsbury Park. This would have given Orr very little time to wake up, get dressed, set up his camera and take a series of photos of the rapidly falling airship.”

I’m not certain where Orr resided, but if we assume that he lived near his shop in the High Road of Woodford, he was about 9-10 miles away from Cuffley* in a straight line.


Technology:

Can a camera from the period take an image at night quickly enough to catch something like a dirigible in the flickering light of searchlights?  I’m going to say maybe.

night-cameraThis image was taken by William Rider-Rider in 1917 at the Front.  Clearly the muzzle flash is very bright, but still barely illuminates the gun crew.

With the speed a falling dirigible was descending, even from an altitude of 2 miles (the height of SL-11) Mr. Castle feels that this would be nothing but a blurred streak.

In fairness, if we look at the destruction of the Hindenburg the length of time from beginning to end is about 30 seconds, mostly due to the fact that the burning airship is only slowly losing buoyancy.  Now if the SL-11 was at the height of 2 miles as given, that’s a straight drop time (with no buoyancy) of about 26 seconds.  If we accept that there would be some buoyancy initially, we can safely assume a time of 30 seconds to a minute for the wreckage to hit the ground. (Mr. Castle says he’s seen comments that it took 2-3 minutes to come down.*)

But the camera would need to follow that falling body and keep the image still in focus.  With modern technology this would be dead easy, in 1916, at night, not so much.


Size:

If we assume that is a real series (instead of a mock up), variables such as size based on distance will change.  Remember, there are no zoom lenses.  These may be photographic enlargements to match size, but in 1916 this technology was very rare.  Most images are the actual size of the print.

So, using the actual prints:

capture1Image 1, Broadside. Ship’s length as measured on the photograph is 42 mm, maximum width is 5 mm.

 

 

capture2Image 2, Angled away.  Length is 26 mm, maximum width is 4 mm.  You will notice that as it moves away, it becomes increasingly out of focus.  This is totally plausible for either a real photograph or a mock-up.

 

capture3Image 3, Ignition. Severe angle. Length is 17 mm, maximum width is 4 mm.

The flames are at the center of the airship.  According to William Leefe Robinson, the pilot who shot the airship down, he concentrated his fire at the rear of the ship, so the fire started at the back and moved forward as it fell.*

capture4Image 4, Falling  – Length approximately 30 mm, maximum width is 3 mm.  These last three have been handed tinted.

 

 

 

capture5Image 5 – Length is 30+ mm, maximum width is 4 mm.

 

 

 

 

 

capture6Image 6 — Length is 30+ mm, maximum width is 4 mm.

 

 

 

 

 

What this means is that for the entire series, the images did not change distance dramatically from the camera.

chart

Put plainly if A is the camera.  B is the airship, for it to maintain the same approxiate scale, it would be falling in an arc.

 

There were some other issues that appeared, such the fact that there is a certain flaring that occurs in images of nitrocellulose or aluminum doped fabric, but I won’t bother with that since the issues is clearly one of the vessel’s configuration.  However, the ‘incandescent mantle of white heat’ was mentioned by a reporter at the time.*


Configuration:

capture1Let’s take another look at the broadside image.  There are no rear fins, no engine nacelles and the fore and aft are fairly conical.  There is also a keel structure that extends through the fore and aft crew compartments.

 

sl11_under_constructionThis is an actual image of the SL 11, as supplied by Mr. Castle. Note the shape of the nose.
 

 

 

 

Shütte-Lanz 11This is the SL II, as noted in the early blog post. Notice the shape.

 

 

 

sl-9Compare that with this third image, supplied by Mr. Castle of another SL.

 

early-zeppelin0003As I mentioned earlier though, he was working from the two images.  Once he saw the first image above he realized we were looking at an impression of an “early war M-class Zeppelin. This type was in operation over England in 1915 but none of this type ever reached London. It was the only type known in Britain pre-war and remained the only type known to the military authorites until the shooting down of a ‘p-class’ Zeppelin on 31st March 1916. … This type had an external keel between gondolas, seen on this drawing and Orr’s image. The ‘p-class’ and all later types had an internal keel.”

Even so, the nose was far more conical in Orr’s images than in the actual aircraft.

So clearly the airship in the image was a model, based on the M-Class.


Other Images:

glass-plateInterestingly, as I was researching for this blog entry , I found an auction announcement for a set of the above photos, as well as a glass plate negative being sold by the descendants of the photographer.

The advertisement describes the image as “The rare large glass plate negative offered here would seem to document the ‘Theatreland Raid’ of 13 October 1915, when five airships dropped bombs on central London damaging the Lyceum Theatre and surrounding streets.”

This was a five Zeppelin raid (actual Zeppelins, not LS), L-11, L-13, L-14, L-15, and L-16 (LZ-41, LZ-45, LZ-46, LZ-48 and LZ-50); all of which are P-Class Zeppelins.

The buildings in the foreground may be adapted from real buildings, or may just be cut-outs.

The distance issue listed above is worse in the case of this image.

glass2

A close up of the airship shows the same general configuration of the model above, including the conical nose.  I’m going with model for this one as well.

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Early Tulsa, part 2

As I mentioned recently in this post, I received some copies of pages from the old Tulsa Court Clerks land books.  I decided to share a map of the allotments as presented there, and the oddities there.oldtulsa

One of the unusual bits is that some of these allotments don’t match where things later were recorded, or in the case of the cemetery, where it was actually placed.

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CARLSON v. MONITOR IRON WORKS

(Supreme Court, Appellate Division. Second Department. February 7.

Injury To ServantDefective MachineryAssumed RisksMaster’s Liability.

Decedent bad been employed for ten years In defendant’s foundry, and for eight or nine days In the milling room; his duty being to unload castings from trucks, and place them in revolving tumblers for cleaning. The tumblers, which were revolved by gearing from behind, were secured, when closed, by a wooden wedge, which projected slightly, as did the flanges and rivet heads on the side, which projections were plainly visible. Deceased slipped while unloading pipe, was thrown against a revolving tumbler, caught between it and the shafting, and received injuries from which he died. ‘Held, that such dangers were within the risks of the employment, which decedent assumed, and that defendant was not liable for his death.

Appeal from trial term, Westchester county.

Action by Anna Carlson, as administratrix of Franz Ludwig Carlson, deceased, against the Monitor Iron Works. From a judgment dismissing plaintiff’s complaint, she appeals. Affirmed.

Argued before GOODRICH. P. J., and CULLEN, BARTLETT, HATCH, and WOODWARD, J J.

.Smith Lent, for appellant.

W. Popham Piatt, for respondent.

GOODRICH, P. J. In March, 1S97, the plaintiff’s intestate, while working in the defendant’s factory at Sing Sing, received injuries from which he died. This action was brought to recover damages for his death, and at the trial, upon the close of the plaintiff’s evidence, the complaint was dismissed. From the judgment entered thereon, the plaintiff appeals.

Carlson, the intestate, had been employed for ten years as a molder’s helper in the foundry of the defendant at Sing Sing. For eight or nine days before the accident which caused his death he had been transferred to work in connection with the milling room, the place of the accident. In this room there were five mills or tumblers, in a continuous line, into which “sprews,”‘ or pipe castings, as they came from casting, were placed for cleaning purposes. Each tumbler was about five feet in length and four in diameter, and was fitted with folding doors on the side, one part opening up and the other down, which when closed were fastened with an iron strap or hasp, and a wooden wedge to hold them securely. The wedge projected an inch or an inch and a half. There were also flanges and rivet heads on the side, projecting an inch or two from the staves or body of the tumblers. The latter were used to clean the pipes by attrition, and were made to revolve on an axis by shafting and wheels placed behind them. In front of them, and about two or three feet distant, was a railroad track, running parallel with the line of the tumblers, and used for trucks upon which the pipe castings were brought to the tumblers. It was a part of Carlson’s duty to unload the pipes, put them in the tumblers, and fasten the doors. While in the act of lifting a pipe from a truck, Carlson slipped or stumbled, was thrown against one of the tumblers, which was revolving, was caught in some way, and thrown over it, and wedged in between it and the shafting on the other side, and thus received the injuries which resulted in his death. There was evidence that about two years before this accident the clothing of another person was caught in some part of a tumbler, and that he was thrown over it upon the shafting, and that the clothing, also, of other workmen had been caught on projections of the tumblers. There was also evidence to show that these flanges, rivets, and wedges were “obvious to anybody’s sight.” The defendant moved to dismiss the complaint upon the ground that Carlson had been in the foundry for many years, and was familiar with the machinery, and that whatever risks there were were obvious to him, and that he assumed these risks in his employment. The court granted the motion over the plaintiff’s exception.

It is decided by a long line of cases that, where a servant enters upon employment, he assumes the usual risks and perils of the service, and also those risks and perils incident to the use of machinery which are apparent to ordinary observation, and that he cannot call upon the master to make alterations to secure greater safety, or, in case of injury, call upon him for indemnity. Gibson v. Railway Co., 03 N. Y. 449; De Forest v. Jewett, 88 N. Y. 204; Appel v. Railroad Co., 111 N. Y. 550,19 N. E. 93: Kaare v. Iron Co.. 139 N. Y. 309, 34 N. E. 901; Knisley v. Pratt, 146 N. Y. 372, 42 K. E. 980. In the last case it was also held that the servant, by entering upon the service with a full knowledge of the facts, waived, under the common-law doctrine of obvious risks, the performance by the master of the duty to furnish the special protection required by the factory act of 1890. Kaare v. Iron Co., supra, is perhaps the most explicit authority for the dismissal of the complaint upon the facts in this case; and it was cited and followed by this court in Farrell v. Tathan (decided at the January term) 55 N. Y. Supp. 199, where (Mr. Justice Willard Bartlett writing) we affirmed the general doctrine that where a person was aware of the danger, and exposed himself to it with complete knowledge of its character, and without objection or remonstrance, he voluntarily assumed the risk of injury from apparent dangers. This case falls within that principle.

The complaint was properly dismissed, and the judgment must be affirmed.

Judgment affirmed, with costs. All concur.

55 N.Y.S.-63

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Early Tulsa

tul-19n-12e

Section 1, Township 19 Range 12 is the colored box in the top right. (Click for full image)

 

I was recently sent several blurry pages from the Tulsa County Clerks records (Section 1, Township 19, Range 12)- aka by a researcher who asked not to be identified.  Since I was asked not to share the photos, I thought I’d just transcribe them.

This is going to be tricky since the penmanship was iffy, and the images are blurry, but bear with me please.

I will not be adding in the lot and quadrant notes since those are too difficult to read and really cause trouble with WordPress formatting.  Please just go look them up if you want to see them.

This is just the first page.

Page 1
Grantor Grantee Kind of Instr Book Pages Remarks
Cherokee Nation Chambers J. W. … Deed GG 550 5-17-0[9]
Cherokee Nation Turley, M. Allot Deed Q 2 9/28/07
Creek Nation Hodge, A. T. Deed Allot S 170 8/28/03
Creek Nation Hodge, M.J. Deed Allot S 171 8/28/03
Creek Nation Mc. Hodge D. Deed Allot S 172 8/28/03
Creek Nation Perryman, C. Deed Allot S 176 8/28/03
Creek Nation Manuel, C. Deed Allot S 328 12/21/03
Creek Nation Berry, [F] Deed Allot V 628 6/13/05
Creek Nation Rentie, R.B. Deed Allot U 592 12/21/03
Manuel, C. Clapp, R, W. R.C. [H]N 549 9/11/[02]
Creek Nation Bell, C.P. [Lem] Restrs A4 164 6/5/05
Creek Nation Hodge, A. T. Deps Letter A4 352 2/15/04
Creek Nation Burnette, M.J. Deps Letter A4 357 5/15/04
Creek Nation Turley, M. Deps Letter A4 368 11/29/05
[Turley] J. W. Lynch, C.B. wd C 485 7/29/05
Chambers, T. etal A.T.&S.F. Ry Co. can deed C 428 1/24/06
Creek Nation Town of Tulsa pat.  Cemetery W 318 6/11/04
McLand, J. W. et ux M.I.R.R. Co. Wid J 122 1/20/05
Hodge, A. T. Public sch CC 57 12/30/05
Rentie, U. A. Wilson, [S.F.] RC CC 75 3/3/06
Creek Nation Bell, C.P. rem rest CC 351 11/9/05
Clapp, A. W. Watkins, W.H. assign lease H 299 4/24/03
Williams, C. Watkins, W.H. RC H 435 9/24/03
Creek Nation Burnette, W.J. rem rest H 557 9/24/03
Creek Nation Linsdsey, L.D. rem rest H 571 4/25/04
Kreiger, M.D. et al Bradford, A.L. mtg L 229 10/27/04
Bell, C. Kennedy, L.B. wd M 573 5/26/05
Bell, C. Kennedy, L.B. wd N 101 2/20/0[6]
Bell, C. Kennedy, L.B. wd N 224 5/29/05
Kreiger, M.D. Adams, G. W. wd N 468 9/23/05
Mc[Sand] J. M. 1 wy Kreiger, M.D wd N 588 10/13/04
Carliss, H.A. Kreiger, M.D ret mtg O 43 4/20/05
Watkins, W.H. Manuel, C. ret mtg O 71 9/2/05

It’s worth noting that Chambers, and Turley are allotted land by both the Cherokee and Creek.  Without looking into  more detail, I expect that it has to do with this little strip of land:

benoBecause of an error in mapping that strip is  technically in Creek Lands, while being north of the line dividing the Creek and Cherokee lands.  I believe Mary Turley was Cherokee.  Her land is now completely covered by the IDL, the Detroit exit, Mt. Zion and parts of the OSU-Tulsa Parking lot.

Another interesting note.  Lindsey, L. D. is Lilah Denton Lindsey, whose papers are held by The University of Tulsa, McFarlin Library, Department of Special Collections.   The Tulsa Gal Blog has a nifty write up on Lilah.  Lilah’s allotment was about 12th and Guthrie, south of the current southern side of the IDL, and right next to the Greek Orthodox Church.

Capture

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Boot and shoemaking Letter, 1870

The Honourable Cordwainer’s Company library has just acquired a letter for its collections.  With the number of HCC2016.001, it is housed with the rest of the Guild Library at The Department of Special Collections, McFarlin Library, The University of Tulsa.


hcc2016-001-001San Francisco, July 10, 1870

Bro. John,

It has been almost six months since I left [Lavies] and have given you no account of myself directly yet — though I have been on the point of writing many times.  But the truth is writing letter is no pastime for me and even when after times I considered it a duty I defer it til the latest possible moment,  I am working in the same place that I have been all the time since I came here and perhaps you


hcc2016-001-002not object to hear something about how the boot and shoe business is carried out in this new country.

There are no manufactories on this coast except those in this city and suburbs,  The largest is the one in which I am employed and at present it keeps about 200 hands at work.  For the past three months more wok has been turned out than ever before in the same time.  We have all the latest improvements in machinery and better system than I ever saw before in a shoe shop.  The prices paid


hcc2016-001-003for work here would frighten you, though it is less by 12 per cent than a year ago.  One man is kept all the time working on siding books by hand for which he received $8.50 per case — side seams only.  The man who turns the books gets 30 cts per case — cutting out the welts being part of the job,  Nearly all of the boots are sided by machine except the counters and an inch or so above which is done by hand, and for this part — which is about the amount of 9 inches to each boot they pay $[120] per case.

I think this is a good way


hcc2016-001-004to fit boots.  One man sides up from 12 to 14 cases per day on just a machine as you had and gets from 25 to 35 cents per case for it.

In this way you could get your fitting for less than half your present prices and the seams are better — the machine is arrayed with common hand tar wax kept melted for the thread to [qure] through it so that when the thread gets cold in the seam it will break before it will ravel.  The price of stock is not so high here as in the east — except such as it imported –Good Kip — better than I ever saw even


hcc2016-001-005sells for 20 to 22 cents.  There are whole skins measuring from 25 to 30 feet and cutting up so that no shoulders or heads are ever left.

But enough about the leather business at this time.

Business is very flat here non generally — almost every trade except ours has more loafers than workers at present, and many seem discouraged about its ever being better.  There is a very large carriage shop here which used to give employment to 1500 hands now has only 15.  And many other departments of labor have gone down in about the lower ratio.  But there is no way but for business


hcc2016-001-006to revive here some time and those who are discouraged must bide their time.

Money brings 12 per cent per annum [it ] interest in the savings banks and 3 per cent worse at private banks.

Living is quite cheap here.  New apples have been in market a month — Mellons are just making their appearance — new squashes are also just coming though most vegetables are a constant treat here — strawberries, blackberries, peach, apricots, cherries, plums, oranges, lemons, figs &co. are found in bulk in market and all are grown in this state — grapes also are just coming which are


hcc2016-001-007more important than all the rest, as an article of trade.

But perhaps I have said enough for once — I should like to hear from you and your business.  How are you doing at the shop and have you the same crew as of old — and exactly in the same old path.  Remember me to the family and write on receipt of this.  I rec’d the Reporter you send.

Yours,

D. F. Smith

P.S. Louis asks me to say she is looking for a letter from Almeda every day.


hcc2016-001-008

 

 

 

 

 

 


hcc2016-001-009

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WWI Nurses in the Alice Welford photograph album

Going through the Alice Welford photograph album there are a number of faces that have appeared and reappear.  This may be updated as I actually figure out who they are.

Name Where picture was taken Date
welf1 Welford, Alice.  QAIMNSR

 

Gibralter 1915
betts “Betts”.  QAIMNSR Gibralter? 1915-16
robinson1 Robinson. Territorial Force St. Gabriels College, Camberwell, London >1916
priestly Priestly. Territorial Force St. Gabriels College, Camberwell, London >1916
hitch “Hitch”. Territorial Force St. Gabriels College, Camberwell, London >1916
const2 const1 Constable, E. M. .  QAIMNSR  (Probably, Edith May Constable) Gibralter 1915
herdana Lierdman (The penmanship is lacking) Gibralter/Malta 1915-6
lowe Lowe Gibralter 1915
sisterseuropa Unknown Gibralter 1915
shays Shays Gibralter 1916
March&Mackenzie March & Mackenzie (uncertain of the order) Gibralter 1915
unid1 Unidentified Gibraltar 1915
fig Unidentified Gibralter 1915
 untitled  Uncertain (Hellen?)  Malta 1916

 

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More Alice Welford

Compare the images in the Welford Scrapbook, and the photo of the St. Ignatius Hospital Staff in Malta.  With the exception of the woman with her head turned, everyone in the small photo appears in the portrait.  It would be nice if I could identify more than two of them.  Dr Isabelle Stenhouse and Sister Alice Welford.

picture.jpg

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Mystery Building

I’ve discussed this one elsewhere before (here for those who are keeping score at home), but since I’m writing lately about photographic analysis, I thought I’d share it and expand upon it.

When analyzing photographs, sometimes interesting things pop out.  In the case of the Race Riot, trying to figure out where the photos were taken can be tricky.  And sometimes, you run across things that you just can’t answer.   In one case, there is a building that appears in a number of the photos that I can’t identify.

Panorama of the Riot area facing east - taken from atop the original BTW high school.

Panorama of the Riot area facing east – taken from atop the original BTW high school.

This panorama photo was taken shortly after the event of the riot and burning.  You can easily see the buildings on the eastern ridgeline, which still exist.  These are identified in the 1918 Aero map as ABC construction.  But next to that is a building I don’t recognize.

Enlargment of panorama, showing Dunbar Elementary ruins, ABC Construction and mystery building.

Enlargment of panorama, showing Dunbar Elementary ruins, ABC Construction and mystery building.

Multiple floors and what looks like a cupola on top.

Then we see it in other pictures.  For example this one taken from Peoria looking at the burning district.

Image taken from Peoria facing west. TU 1989-004-5-25

Image taken from Peoria facing west. TU 1989-004-5-25

Blow that up:

Detail of 1989-004-5-25

Detail of 1989-004-5-25

And there it is again.

Looking at some other images we can see it more clearly

Picture of a burned out car showing the mystery building on the far left. TU 1989-004-5-W9

Picture of a burned out car showing the mystery building on the far left. TU 1989-004-5-W9

Picture of a car with mystery building in the background. TU 1989-004-5-W6

Picture of a car with mystery building in the background. TU 1989-004-5-W6

We can enlarge that

Detail of photo 1989-004-5-W6

Detail of photo 1989-004-5-W6

So far I have not been able to find any other images of this building.

If we take a modern map and plot lines on it we get this

map of downtown showing angles

map of downtown showing angles

Then look at what the Sanborn map shows

sanbornThat puts the crossing somewhere on Jackson.

Going back to the 1918 Aero map we see nothing.

aeroIf we look at the 1921 City Directory

directoryJacksonThere is a listing for a First Baptist Church (c)  Unfortunately the same source says that the congregation is about 100 people.

1stbaptistcThat seems a bit small for this size of building.  And no pictures of that seem to have survived.  So, still digging.

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Interesting Photographic Discovery.

I have been working on a WWI nurse’s photograph album for work, processing and analyzing the photographs.  Eventually I’ll be posting a better entry on that entire collection on the Special Collections blog.  For the present though I will share that it belongs to Sister Alice Welford (1887-1918), born in Crathorne, Yorkshire. She trained at St. Bartholomew’s Hospital in London and served in the Queen Alexandra’s Imperial Military Nursing Service Reserve from 1915 until her death. She drowned in a boat collision near Basra, 15 January 1918.

On April 29, 1917, a Sunday, she was on a friendly outing with two other women, and three young men to a beach (‘Il Blata Steps’, probably Il Il-Blata l-Bajda, on the coast of the island, although it might also be Il Blata tal Mehl) and that experience was recorded by the two cameras that were present.  One was probably a Vest Pocket Kodak, while the other may have been a Houghton Box Ensign.

Alice Welford Photograph Album. Department of Special Collections, McFarlin Library. The University of Tulsa.

Alice Welford Photograph Album. Department of Special Collections, McFarlin Library. The University of Tulsa.

These are the photos we are looking at.  The three in the center are the most interesting to me at this point.

Alice Welford Photograph Album. Department of Special Collections, McFarlin Library. The University of Tulsa.

Alice Welford Photograph Album. Department of Special Collections, McFarlin Library. The University of Tulsa.

The women are Alice Welford, on the left (in the white naval cap belonging to one of the two uniformed men).  She is sitting next to a man who appears at other times in the album.  He is a Naval Lieutenant, but is not in uniform on this day, therefore the cap is unlikely to be his.  His name is unclear when it is written elsewhere in the album.

Next to him in the dark hat is a woman who was tentatively identified as Isabelle Stenhouse although it appears she is not.  Stenhouse, one of the few woman surgeons in the First World War, does appear elsewhere in the album.  In this period she was at St. Ignatius Hospital in Malta, as was Sister Welford.  Further information including photographs may be found at:

Alice Welford Photograph Album. Department of Special Collections, McFarlin Library. The University of Tulsa.

Alice Welford Photograph Album. Department of Special Collections, McFarlin Library. The University of Tulsa.

There are two Naval Sub-Lieutenants and an unidentified Nursing Sister.  The two Sub-Lieutenants appear elsewhere in the album identified as Melville and Lt. Leslie.  We may presume that the cap Sister Welford is wearing belongs to the Sublieutenant who is taking the photograph, possibly the one she is on a first name basis with.

They’ve clearly packed a picnic, with baskets, thermoses, and a few bottles we might conjecture are beer.

It looks like the woman who might be Dr. Stenhouse has actually brought her medical bag.

One of the details that could help identify the location is the time of the day.  Il Il-Blata l-Bajda is on the east coast, while Il Blata tal Mehl is on the west coast.  If the pictures were taken at l-Bajda, then these young people skipped church for their picnic.  If they did go to church, then the outing must be late afternoon at tal Mehl.

Alice Welford Photograph Album. Department of Special Collections, McFarlin Library. The University of Tulsa.

Alice Welford Photograph Album. Department of Special Collections, McFarlin Library. The University of Tulsa.

The reason this is interesting is that the center image can not only be identified as to date, and possible location, but we have a picture taken at the same time showing the camera it was made with.  And we know that the unidentified Nursing Sister took the picture (because she’s clearly not in this picture, but she is in both images that the Sub-Lieutenant took).

One of the details that helps identify this sort of thing is that while photographic enlargers existed by the First World War, most photograph developers didn’t have convenient access to them, so the images you are seeing were made as contact prints, that is, the negative was placed on the photographic paper and then the light was shone through the negative.  The size of the image can then reveal the type of film used and often the sort of camera.

The vast majority of photographs taken by normal people during the First World War where made with the Vest Pocket Kodak, on 127 film.  The small images at 1.38” x 2.1” are consistent with the VPK. The larger image was made on 620 film, and while there were a number of Brownie style cameras, the actual image is 2” x  3”, an unusual image size.  The Houghton Box Ensign is close.

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