WWI photography

Hugu "Hap" Gruenberg in the Argonne

1991.008.4.100. Hugo August “Hap” Gruenberg WWI Archive, 1917-1927. Coll No. 1991.008. McFarlin Library. Department of Special Collections and University Archives. The University of Tulsa.

Lately at work I have been researching a former Henry Kendall student, Hugo Augustus “Hap” (or “Happy”) Gruenberg.  Hap was born 19 March 1895 in Illinois and died in July 1972, Chelsea, Oklahoma.  Hugo married Ida Flood in 1923 and lived in Chelsea where he worked for the Post Office.

He seems to have run away from home as a child to join the circus, and escaped from the circus and was rescued by the Milam family.

He also served in World War I, with an ambulance company (think an early field hospital); specifically the 167th Ambulance Co., 42nd “Rainbow” Division.  He was at Luneville, Baccarat, Champagne, Chateau-Thierry, St. Mihiel, and the Argonne Forest and Meuse before being with the early Occupation.

He kept a diary and a photograph album.  Unfortunately we only have one of his diaries since he discusses having lost his diary in his diary, and we don’t have a record of his training. These can be seen as a single collection at this link. Now, since the Hugo “Hap” Gruenberg collection (1991-008) was discussed in the From McFarlin Tower blog yesterday, last December, as well as in April of 2011 the question is why would I be discussing it here as well.

Because as we know I like to talk about things that are really going to be interesting to a very few people, and did I mention that he had photo albums.  There were two albums and a large array of other photos including duplicates.

The first album (oddly labeled as “box 5” in the collection) has 114 images, unidentified, although mostly from training at Fort Riley, although some were clearly in Europe.  One is an anomaly, a copy of an aerial photograph showing an unidentified city.  The bulk of these photos have an image 72 mm x 136 mm (that’s 3 1/32” x 5 ¼” for the not metrically inclined).  This could be a 3a Kodak folding pocket camera, although the image size is wrong.  It is a large camera using 122 roll film and was meant to shoot post card sized images.

The second album (oddly labeled as “box 4” in the collection) has 142 images covering his time in Europe and his return.  Beginning at image 128, they are images of civilian life.  Images 134 and 135 have been removed from the album. The first three images were taken at the 1917 World’s Series in New York City just prior to being sent overseas.  The bulk of the photos in the album have an image 52 mm x 79 mm (2 1.32” x 3 1/32”).  This could be 129 Film, which would take 8 exposures per roll.  Or about 16 rolls of film.  There are very few cameras that used this film, the Ensign or Ensignette were English Cameras.

As we have discussed elsewhere enlargers weren’t commonly used, and usually prints were contact prints at this time. Enlargers existed previously but didn’t start hitting the market until mid-1920s and even then took time for the market to pick them up.

What this suggests is that Gruenberg started with the larger camera, but before he left New York for France, he acquired a smaller camera.  He tried it a little at the World Series.  The smaller camera would be easier to use at the front.

Interestingly, from his surviving diary we know that:

  • 24 December 1917, Gruenberg took a picture of John G.
  • 3 January 1918 he took pictures of [?]
  • 24 January 1918 He and “Lal or Tal” (Carl Ammon) took pictures
  • 28 January 1918 He took pictures of sheep.
  • 2 February 1918 He took pictures because the sun was out.
  • 7 February 1918 He picked up his pictures from the “Lab cutter”
  • 12 February 1918 Pictures after gas training.
  • 3 August 1918 Tal/Carl takes some pictures.
  • 24 September 1918 He and Tal/Carl take pictures for Lt. [Bradfield]
  • 30 September 1918 Pictures in Montsec
  • 7 October 1918 Tal/Carl and he take pictures
  • 8 October 1918 Take picture of ‘Doghouse.’
  • 12 October 1918 Take pictures
  • 18 October 1918 Take pictures. ‘Planes on fire’?
  • 21 October 1918 Take pictures of burial detail.
  • 13 November 1918 Take pictures.
  • 15 November 1918 Take pictures of Tomb and Guns.
  • 23 November 1918 Take pictures of [Meisch]
  • 3 December 1918 while AWOL takes pictures of town in Luxemburg.
  • 18 December 1918 Tal/Carl gets pictures developed. Send home pictures of Neuenahr
  • 24 December 1918 Break into Rhine Castle and take pictures
  • 25 March 1919 Pictures developed.
  • 10 April 1919, on train back to embarkation, stop and take pictures at Train.

Most of these pictures can be identified in the later Album, which I think is seriously cool.

Carl Ammons with a dud

1991.008.4.012. Hugo August “Hap” Gruenberg WWI Archive, 1917-1927. Coll No. 1991.008. McFarlin Library. Department of Special Collections and University Archives. The University of Tulsa.

Carl Ammon and he were friends (Ammon had been on the Henry Kendall College (The University of Tulsa’s earlier incarnation) football team under Francis Schmidt — whose album is next on my to do list.

Just as a note – if any of you chose to read the diary, and I hope you do since the good people who transcribed it, including my wife, did a great job considering his idiosyncratic handwriting, spelling, syntax and structure.  You will need to start at the back cover since he also wrote the pages in reverse order.

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Whitey Hendry


W.P. Whitey Hendry.

I’ve been studying old Hollywood movies recently, and specifically the history of MGM; which means a lot of digging through a number of memoirs, kiss and tell-all books, and actual records where available. There is a lot of speculation in these things, with rumors and legends that show up being repeated, and argued about endlessly.  That’s fine.  I’ll leave it to other people to finally come up with the one true history of the industry.

However, I have noticed that there are people who show up a lot in these stories. There’s been a lot about Eddie Mannix lately, since Hail Caesar! came out, and if you want a fun read about Mannix (and Howard Strickling) you might take a look at The Fixers: Eddie Mannix, Howard Strickling and the MGM Publicity Machine by E.J. Fleming.  As with everything else, it’s got a lot of speculation and gossip, but like I said, it’s fun.

But there is a person who keeps showing up in these books with very little information about him. That’s Whitey Hendry.  Hendry was head of security for MGM as well as the police chief of Culver City for a while.  Hendry was said to have been involved with tidying up Paul Bern’s ‘suicide’, and he was also known for fixing tickets, bribing police, manipulating the press – trust me, you can go as far down that rabbit hole as you want to.  The problem is that once you start controlling the narrative, going back in later and finding what actually happened becomes very difficult, if not impossible.

So, Whitey. I started getting curious about what could be proven.  After spending some time dealing with census records, marriage records, draft registrations, and his obit, we can say this with reasonable assurance.

Wayland Penn Hendry was born 21 September 1895 to Thomas A. Henry and Edythe Woodward Hendry in California. He studied dentistry.  On 5 June 1917 he registered for the draft, but cited defective eye sight as a reason for exemption.  He was tall, slender, with light brown hair and brown eyes.

On 27 July 1918 he married Muriel Cecila Sparks. They had one child, Wayland Marsh Hendry, b. 14 November 1919 (Marsh later got into television editing and died in 1995). W. P. and Muriel parted at some point after that.

In 1925, W.P. joined M.G.M. security. In 1926, Muriel married a man named Charles Fink.  On 6 November 1927, W. P. married Louise B. Varian (B. may be for Berg, her maiden name), b. 2 June 1897.  Both W.P. and Louise were previously divorced.

Whitey left M.G.M. after 28 years, in 1953.

W.P. died 30 November 1960 in Los Angeles. Louise died 28 April 1964, in Los Angeles.


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African American Resources for researching Tulsa History


Three young women on Archer at Greenwood, Tulsa, 1922. 2014.028.24. Greenwood Scrapbook. Special Collections, McFarlin Library. The University of Tulsa.

I am currently attempting to locate some sources for students wanting to do research for the history of African Americans in Tulsa.  In this case, the materials regarding the Race Riot and its events are actually better documented than most of the rest of the history.  So I am starting this to try to assemble a resource list.

What I currently have is:

  • Tulsa World. Tulsa, Okla., 1905-.
  • Tulsa Tribune-Democrat/Tulsa Democrat. Tulsa, Okla., 1919 (1904-1919).
  • Tulsa Tribune. Tulsa, Okla., 1920-1992.
  • “Greenwood Community Scrapbook.” Department of Special Collections and University Archives, McFarlin Library, The University of Tulsa.  Accessed 2016. http://cdm15887.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/search/searchterm/Scrapbooks./mode/exact.
  • Tulsa Star. Tulsa, OK.: Tulsa Star Print and Publishing Co., Apr. 11, 1913-Jan. 29, 1921; Apr. 14, 1960-Dec. 31, 1978. [Holdings are sporadic on microfiche, and a second Tulsa Star was published in the 1960s.]
  • The Oklahoma Eagle. Tulsa, Okla.: Oklahoma Eagle Pub Co., v.1 (1922)-; Jan. 3, 1942-Dec. 25, 2014. [the 1922-1942 issues are not on microform]
  • Bates, Michael. “The 1921 Tulsa Race Riot and the 90 Years That Followed.” BatesLine: Tulsa straight ahead, 2011. Accessed 10/21/2016, 2016. http://www.batesline.com/archives/2011/05/the-1921-tulsa-race-riot-and-the.html.
  • Bates, Michael. “Brenda Terry on Greenwood in the ’40s and ’50s.” BatesLine: Tulsa straight ahead, 2011. Accessed 10/31/2016, 2016. http://www.batesline.com/archives/2011/12/brenda-terry-on-greenwood-in-the.html.
  • Cornwell, Willard Jacob. “Playing between the Lines: An Examination of Negro League Baseball in Oklahoma, 1892 to 1965.” Oklahoma State University, 2015. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.
  • DeWitty, Dorothy Moses. Tulsa, a Tale of Two Cities. Langston: Langston University, 1997.
  • Franklin, Buck Colbert. My Life and an Era : The Autobiography of Buck Colbert Franklin. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1997.
  • Gates, Eddie Faye. They Came Searching : How Blacks Sought the Promised Land in Tulsa. Austin, Tx.: Eakin Pr., 1997.
  • Johnson, Hannibal B. Black Wall Street : From Riot to Renaissance in Tulsa’s Historic Greenwood District. Austin, Tex.: Eakin Press, 1998.
  • Johnson, Hannibal B. Up from the Ashes : A Story About Building Community. Austin, Tex.: Eakin Press, 2000.
  • Johnson, Hannibal B. Acres of Aspiration : The All-Black Towns in Oklahoma. Austin, Tex.: Eakin Press, 2002.
  • Johnson, Hannibal B. Racial Reconciliation Project : Final Report (January 2003). Tulsa: National Conference for Community and Justice, 2003.
  • Johnson, Hannibal B. Apartheid in Indian Country? : Seeing Red over Black Disenfranchisement. Waco, TX: Eakin Press, 2012.
  • Johnson, Hannibal B. Tulsa’s Historic Greenwood District. Images of America. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing, 2014.
  • Little, Mabel B., Nathan Hare, and Julia Hare. Fire on Mount Zion : My Life and History as a Black Woman in America. Langston, Okla: Melvin B. Tolson Black Heritage Center, Langston University, 1990.
  • Parrish, Mary E. Jones. Events of the Tulsa Disaster. Tulsa?: s.n., 1922?
  • Ward, Arley R. II. “‘The Oklahoma Eagle’ in World War II : Advocation, Advocacy, and Invisibility.” University of Tulsa, 2014.


  • Lemons, Shelly Lynn “Down on First Street : Prostitution in Tulsa, Oklahoma, 1900-1925.” Oklahoma State University, 2004.
  • Messer, Chris. “The Tulsa Race Riot of 1921: Determining Its Causes and Framing.” Oklahaoma State University, 2008.


I will be updating as I find things.

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Duchess of Sutherland’s Ambulance

Returning to World War I Nursing, one of the units I am interested in is the Duchess of Sutherland’s Ambulance, also known as Millicent Sutherland’s Ambulance, the No. 9 Red Cross Hospital.

Just to be clear before I start, there have been other articles written about this unit.  These include:

The chapter in Women in the War Zone on Millicent the Duchess of Sutherland is a recap of the events, and quotes from her book, Six Weeks at War.

The brief version is that in August 1914, when the war began, Millicent Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, The Duchess of Sutherland went to France to establish a nursing ambulance to care for the wounded soldiers.  At this time, there was considerable resistance to unofficial nursing units because of what was seen as problems caused by the well-intentioned amateurs in the Boer War, and the actual existence of a professional military nursing structure with the Queen Alexandria’s Imperial Military Nursing Service.

The original Army Nursing Service had found isselves short-handed, and in 1897 it was reorganized and a Reserve was established with Queen Alexandria as its patron.  In 1909, the Territorial Force Nursing Service was established as a supplement.  However in 1914, there was no official place for the Duchess of Sutherland in the British Military structure.

Sutherland started with the French Red Cross and within a few days had transferred to the Belgian Red Cross, and when her nurses and surgeon arrived they went to Namur, and were soon overrun by the German invasion.  After a brief time in captivity, they were repatriated via the (then neutral) Americans with an understanding that they would not return.

The staff Sutherland listed in her book were as follows:

Dr. Oswald Morgan of Guy’s Hospital
Sister Bartlett
Sister Heron-Bartlett
Sister Vizard
Sister Ford
Sister Kirby
Sister Cowell
Sister Netherwood
Sister Thake
and Mr. C. Winser, Stretcher Bearer

The point of interest is that this list is full of people who are difficult to trace, and is leaving out at least one known person who was there: Sister Mildred Rees of New Zealand (daughter of William Gilbert Rees, noted explorer).

Sister Netherwood is Marie Margaret Netherwood of Altrincham, Greater Manchester Area.

Later, Sutherland returned with her Ambulance to France as an official unit eventually.

Extracted from Base Hospitals in France – The Long, Long Trail:

No 9 British Red Cross Calais Jan 16 – Mar 18; Longuenesse Mar 18 – Sep 18; Hazebrouck Sep 18 – Oct 18; Roubaix Oct 18 – Nov 18 Known as the Duchess of Sutherlands Hospital or Millicent Sutherland Ambulance. 100 beds

This listing clearly only notes the time spent as an official military hospital.

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There is a new (new to me at least) website, Historypin, that allows for historical pictures to be mounted and placed on a map.  I have signed up as myself and am part of the departmental’s account as well.  This morning I am starting to upload some University archives photos. There will be others on my account as well.

When I finished figuring out the nuances I will be uploading the Historic Greenwood images, and the Race Riot images.



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Early Tulsa, part 3

oldtulsaI’ve been piecing together a map of early Tulsa properties.  This version shows some of the locations of Main Street and the early pre-statehood land.  Interestingly the streets and buildings were on A.T. Hodges allotment before that land was allotted.

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Schütte-Lanz SL 11, revisited

(Edit note:  I have made some edits based on further discussion with Ian Castle.  These will be noted with an asterisk)

Last week, I received a comment on my last post about the Schütte-Lanz SL 11, the airship shot down over Cuffley in September 1916.  This comment was from Ian Castle, an author who has studied the dirigibles over Britain in World War One far more than I have, and published several books about them.  His website on this topic is at http://www.iancastlezeppelin.co.uk/.  He was commenting to correct an attribution on an image of an airship in the collection of The Department of Special Collections, McFarlin Library, The University of Tulsa as not being the SL-11 (eleven*), but rather the SL-II (two*).   As we conversed further, he suggested that the images taken by Orr might in fact be a mock-up, rather than the actual airship being shot down.

I should be clear — these images have been presented for a century as being ‘real,’ actual photographs of the SL-11.  Orr has been noted by scholars for having been one of the first photographers to document aerial warfare.

12Castle’s reasons for thinking these were not actual images of the SL-11* were fairly straight-forward, and based on these images from the series:




His technical questions were similar to some I have had such as how could these photos have been taken with the technology of the time?  He also had more practical questions about how could the photographer have gotten there in time to take the pictures since the SL-11 was shot down at 2 in the morning, many miles away from the photographer’s home.

So as we’ve been talking about this, I’ve been doing the photographic forensics thing, and he’s been walking through the history of the airship.  We have an answer now, and since one of the things I do in this blog is the forensics of photography,  I can walk folks through the process.

However, the tl;dr (too long, didn’t read; i.e. executive summary) answer is these six images are in fact mock-ups absolutely.


cuffleyThis image shows the relative positions of Orr’s shop and Cuffley.  According to Mr. Castle, “The first AA guns at Finsbury Park* opened fire at about 2.00am, about 4 miles from the very centre of London. By 2.25am SL 11 was a flaming mass over Cuffley, about 13 miles from Finsbury Park. This would have given Orr very little time to wake up, get dressed, set up his camera and take a series of photos of the rapidly falling airship.”

I’m not certain where Orr resided, but if we assume that he lived near his shop in the High Road of Woodford, he was about 9-10 miles away from Cuffley* in a straight line.


Can a camera from the period take an image at night quickly enough to catch something like a dirigible in the flickering light of searchlights?  I’m going to say maybe.

night-cameraThis image was taken by William Rider-Rider in 1917 at the Front.  Clearly the muzzle flash is very bright, but still barely illuminates the gun crew.

With the speed a falling dirigible was descending, even from an altitude of 2 miles (the height of SL-11) Mr. Castle feels that this would be nothing but a blurred streak.

In fairness, if we look at the destruction of the Hindenburg the length of time from beginning to end is about 30 seconds, mostly due to the fact that the burning airship is only slowly losing buoyancy.  Now if the SL-11 was at the height of 2 miles as given, that’s a straight drop time (with no buoyancy) of about 26 seconds.  If we accept that there would be some buoyancy initially, we can safely assume a time of 30 seconds to a minute for the wreckage to hit the ground. (Mr. Castle says he’s seen comments that it took 2-3 minutes to come down.*)

But the camera would need to follow that falling body and keep the image still in focus.  With modern technology this would be dead easy, in 1916, at night, not so much.


If we assume that is a real series (instead of a mock up), variables such as size based on distance will change.  Remember, there are no zoom lenses.  These may be photographic enlargements to match size, but in 1916 this technology was very rare.  Most images are the actual size of the print.

So, using the actual prints:

capture1Image 1, Broadside. Ship’s length as measured on the photograph is 42 mm, maximum width is 5 mm.



capture2Image 2, Angled away.  Length is 26 mm, maximum width is 4 mm.  You will notice that as it moves away, it becomes increasingly out of focus.  This is totally plausible for either a real photograph or a mock-up.


capture3Image 3, Ignition. Severe angle. Length is 17 mm, maximum width is 4 mm.

The flames are at the center of the airship.  According to William Leefe Robinson, the pilot who shot the airship down, he concentrated his fire at the rear of the ship, so the fire started at the back and moved forward as it fell.*

capture4Image 4, Falling  – Length approximately 30 mm, maximum width is 3 mm.  These last three have been handed tinted.




capture5Image 5 – Length is 30+ mm, maximum width is 4 mm.






capture6Image 6 — Length is 30+ mm, maximum width is 4 mm.






What this means is that for the entire series, the images did not change distance dramatically from the camera.


Put plainly if A is the camera.  B is the airship, for it to maintain the same approxiate scale, it would be falling in an arc.


There were some other issues that appeared, such the fact that there is a certain flaring that occurs in images of nitrocellulose or aluminum doped fabric, but I won’t bother with that since the issues is clearly one of the vessel’s configuration.  However, the ‘incandescent mantle of white heat’ was mentioned by a reporter at the time.*


capture1Let’s take another look at the broadside image.  There are no rear fins, no engine nacelles and the fore and aft are fairly conical.  There is also a keel structure that extends through the fore and aft crew compartments.


sl11_under_constructionThis is an actual image of the SL 11, as supplied by Mr. Castle. Note the shape of the nose.




Shütte-Lanz 11This is the SL II, as noted in the early blog post. Notice the shape.




sl-9Compare that with this third image, supplied by Mr. Castle of another SL.


early-zeppelin0003As I mentioned earlier though, he was working from the two images.  Once he saw the first image above he realized we were looking at an impression of an “early war M-class Zeppelin. This type was in operation over England in 1915 but none of this type ever reached London. It was the only type known in Britain pre-war and remained the only type known to the military authorites until the shooting down of a ‘p-class’ Zeppelin on 31st March 1916. … This type had an external keel between gondolas, seen on this drawing and Orr’s image. The ‘p-class’ and all later types had an internal keel.”

Even so, the nose was far more conical in Orr’s images than in the actual aircraft.

So clearly the airship in the image was a model, based on the M-Class.

Other Images:

glass-plateInterestingly, as I was researching for this blog entry , I found an auction announcement for a set of the above photos, as well as a glass plate negative being sold by the descendants of the photographer.

The advertisement describes the image as “The rare large glass plate negative offered here would seem to document the ‘Theatreland Raid’ of 13 October 1915, when five airships dropped bombs on central London damaging the Lyceum Theatre and surrounding streets.”

This was a five Zeppelin raid (actual Zeppelins, not LS), L-11, L-13, L-14, L-15, and L-16 (LZ-41, LZ-45, LZ-46, LZ-48 and LZ-50); all of which are P-Class Zeppelins.

The buildings in the foreground may be adapted from real buildings, or may just be cut-outs.

The distance issue listed above is worse in the case of this image.


A close up of the airship shows the same general configuration of the model above, including the conical nose.  I’m going with model for this one as well.

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Early Tulsa, part 2

As I mentioned recently in this post, I received some copies of pages from the old Tulsa Court Clerks land books.  I decided to share a map of the allotments as presented there, and the oddities there.oldtulsa

One of the unusual bits is that some of these allotments don’t match where things later were recorded, or in the case of the cemetery, where it was actually placed.

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(Supreme Court, Appellate Division. Second Department. February 7.

Injury To ServantDefective MachineryAssumed RisksMaster’s Liability.

Decedent bad been employed for ten years In defendant’s foundry, and for eight or nine days In the milling room; his duty being to unload castings from trucks, and place them in revolving tumblers for cleaning. The tumblers, which were revolved by gearing from behind, were secured, when closed, by a wooden wedge, which projected slightly, as did the flanges and rivet heads on the side, which projections were plainly visible. Deceased slipped while unloading pipe, was thrown against a revolving tumbler, caught between it and the shafting, and received injuries from which he died. ‘Held, that such dangers were within the risks of the employment, which decedent assumed, and that defendant was not liable for his death.

Appeal from trial term, Westchester county.

Action by Anna Carlson, as administratrix of Franz Ludwig Carlson, deceased, against the Monitor Iron Works. From a judgment dismissing plaintiff’s complaint, she appeals. Affirmed.


.Smith Lent, for appellant.

W. Popham Piatt, for respondent.

GOODRICH, P. J. In March, 1S97, the plaintiff’s intestate, while working in the defendant’s factory at Sing Sing, received injuries from which he died. This action was brought to recover damages for his death, and at the trial, upon the close of the plaintiff’s evidence, the complaint was dismissed. From the judgment entered thereon, the plaintiff appeals.

Carlson, the intestate, had been employed for ten years as a molder’s helper in the foundry of the defendant at Sing Sing. For eight or nine days before the accident which caused his death he had been transferred to work in connection with the milling room, the place of the accident. In this room there were five mills or tumblers, in a continuous line, into which “sprews,”‘ or pipe castings, as they came from casting, were placed for cleaning purposes. Each tumbler was about five feet in length and four in diameter, and was fitted with folding doors on the side, one part opening up and the other down, which when closed were fastened with an iron strap or hasp, and a wooden wedge to hold them securely. The wedge projected an inch or an inch and a half. There were also flanges and rivet heads on the side, projecting an inch or two from the staves or body of the tumblers. The latter were used to clean the pipes by attrition, and were made to revolve on an axis by shafting and wheels placed behind them. In front of them, and about two or three feet distant, was a railroad track, running parallel with the line of the tumblers, and used for trucks upon which the pipe castings were brought to the tumblers. It was a part of Carlson’s duty to unload the pipes, put them in the tumblers, and fasten the doors. While in the act of lifting a pipe from a truck, Carlson slipped or stumbled, was thrown against one of the tumblers, which was revolving, was caught in some way, and thrown over it, and wedged in between it and the shafting on the other side, and thus received the injuries which resulted in his death. There was evidence that about two years before this accident the clothing of another person was caught in some part of a tumbler, and that he was thrown over it upon the shafting, and that the clothing, also, of other workmen had been caught on projections of the tumblers. There was also evidence to show that these flanges, rivets, and wedges were “obvious to anybody’s sight.” The defendant moved to dismiss the complaint upon the ground that Carlson had been in the foundry for many years, and was familiar with the machinery, and that whatever risks there were were obvious to him, and that he assumed these risks in his employment. The court granted the motion over the plaintiff’s exception.

It is decided by a long line of cases that, where a servant enters upon employment, he assumes the usual risks and perils of the service, and also those risks and perils incident to the use of machinery which are apparent to ordinary observation, and that he cannot call upon the master to make alterations to secure greater safety, or, in case of injury, call upon him for indemnity. Gibson v. Railway Co., 03 N. Y. 449; De Forest v. Jewett, 88 N. Y. 204; Appel v. Railroad Co., 111 N. Y. 550,19 N. E. 93: Kaare v. Iron Co.. 139 N. Y. 309, 34 N. E. 901; Knisley v. Pratt, 146 N. Y. 372, 42 K. E. 980. In the last case it was also held that the servant, by entering upon the service with a full knowledge of the facts, waived, under the common-law doctrine of obvious risks, the performance by the master of the duty to furnish the special protection required by the factory act of 1890. Kaare v. Iron Co., supra, is perhaps the most explicit authority for the dismissal of the complaint upon the facts in this case; and it was cited and followed by this court in Farrell v. Tathan (decided at the January term) 55 N. Y. Supp. 199, where (Mr. Justice Willard Bartlett writing) we affirmed the general doctrine that where a person was aware of the danger, and exposed himself to it with complete knowledge of its character, and without objection or remonstrance, he voluntarily assumed the risk of injury from apparent dangers. This case falls within that principle.

The complaint was properly dismissed, and the judgment must be affirmed.

Judgment affirmed, with costs. All concur.

55 N.Y.S.-63

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Early Tulsa


Section 1, Township 19 Range 12 is the colored box in the top right. (Click for full image)


I was recently sent several blurry pages from the Tulsa County Clerks records (Section 1, Township 19, Range 12)- aka by a researcher who asked not to be identified.  Since I was asked not to share the photos, I thought I’d just transcribe them.

This is going to be tricky since the penmanship was iffy, and the images are blurry, but bear with me please.

I will not be adding in the lot and quadrant notes since those are too difficult to read and really cause trouble with WordPress formatting.  Please just go look them up if you want to see them.

This is just the first page.

Page 1
Grantor Grantee Kind of Instr Book Pages Remarks
Cherokee Nation Chambers J. W. … Deed GG 550 5-17-0[9]
Cherokee Nation Turley, M. Allot Deed Q 2 9/28/07
Creek Nation Hodge, A. T. Deed Allot S 170 8/28/03
Creek Nation Hodge, M.J. Deed Allot S 171 8/28/03
Creek Nation Mc. Hodge D. Deed Allot S 172 8/28/03
Creek Nation Perryman, C. Deed Allot S 176 8/28/03
Creek Nation Manuel, C. Deed Allot S 328 12/21/03
Creek Nation Berry, [F] Deed Allot V 628 6/13/05
Creek Nation Rentie, R.B. Deed Allot U 592 12/21/03
Manuel, C. Clapp, R, W. R.C. [H]N 549 9/11/[02]
Creek Nation Bell, C.P. [Lem] Restrs A4 164 6/5/05
Creek Nation Hodge, A. T. Deps Letter A4 352 2/15/04
Creek Nation Burnette, M.J. Deps Letter A4 357 5/15/04
Creek Nation Turley, M. Deps Letter A4 368 11/29/05
[Turley] J. W. Lynch, C.B. wd C 485 7/29/05
Chambers, T. etal A.T.&S.F. Ry Co. can deed C 428 1/24/06
Creek Nation Town of Tulsa pat.  Cemetery W 318 6/11/04
McLand, J. W. et ux M.I.R.R. Co. Wid J 122 1/20/05
Hodge, A. T. Public sch CC 57 12/30/05
Rentie, U. A. Wilson, [S.F.] RC CC 75 3/3/06
Creek Nation Bell, C.P. rem rest CC 351 11/9/05
Clapp, A. W. Watkins, W.H. assign lease H 299 4/24/03
Williams, C. Watkins, W.H. RC H 435 9/24/03
Creek Nation Burnette, W.J. rem rest H 557 9/24/03
Creek Nation Linsdsey, L.D. rem rest H 571 4/25/04
Kreiger, M.D. et al Bradford, A.L. mtg L 229 10/27/04
Bell, C. Kennedy, L.B. wd M 573 5/26/05
Bell, C. Kennedy, L.B. wd N 101 2/20/0[6]
Bell, C. Kennedy, L.B. wd N 224 5/29/05
Kreiger, M.D. Adams, G. W. wd N 468 9/23/05
Mc[Sand] J. M. 1 wy Kreiger, M.D wd N 588 10/13/04
Carliss, H.A. Kreiger, M.D ret mtg O 43 4/20/05
Watkins, W.H. Manuel, C. ret mtg O 71 9/2/05

It’s worth noting that Chambers, and Turley are allotted land by both the Cherokee and Creek.  Without looking into  more detail, I expect that it has to do with this little strip of land:

benoBecause of an error in mapping that strip is  technically in Creek Lands, while being north of the line dividing the Creek and Cherokee lands.  I believe Mary Turley was Cherokee.  Her land is now completely covered by the IDL, the Detroit exit, Mt. Zion and parts of the OSU-Tulsa Parking lot.

Another interesting note.  Lindsey, L. D. is Lilah Denton Lindsey, whose papers are held by The University of Tulsa, McFarlin Library, Department of Special Collections.   The Tulsa Gal Blog has a nifty write up on Lilah.  Lilah’s allotment was about 12th and Guthrie, south of the current southern side of the IDL, and right next to the Greek Orthodox Church.


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